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Table 3 Protective factors from problem behaviours in the presence of previous risk

From: Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood

  Internalizing behaviours Externalizing behaviours
  Low degree (≤20th) High degree (≥80th)   Low degree (≤20th) High degree (≥80th)  
  N = 19 N = 50 p-value N = 32 N = 43 p-value
Characteristics n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)  
Attends sporting events, art/cultural events, camping events 16 (84.2) 42 (85.7) 1 30 (93.8) 37 (86.0) 0.454
Spends time participating in activities 14 (77.8) 37 (74.0) 1 27 (87.1) 33 (76.7) 0.262
Low screen time - weekdays 12 (63.2) 29 (59.2) 0.764 22 (68.8) 21 (50.0) 0.105
Low screen time - weekends 4 (21.1) 7 (14.3) 0.486 7 (21.9) 6 (14.3) 0.395
Spends two or more days with friends outside of school 10 (52.6) 27 (54.0) 0.919 18 (56.3) 21 (48.8) 0.525
Two or more close friends 18 (94.7) 39 (78.0) 0.157 30 (93.8) 31 (72.1) 0.017
High maternal social support 4 (22.2) 7 (14.0) 0.464 13 (40.6) 4 (9.3) 0.001
High positive parenting interaction 5 (26.3) 8 (16.0) 0.326 8 (25.0) 5 (11.6) 0.13
High neighbourhood cohesion 1 (5.6) 5 (11.1) 0.664 8 (25.0) 3 (7.5) 0.052
At least 1 community involvement event 18 (94.7) 48 (96.0) 1 32 (100.0) 41 (95.3) 0.504
At least 1 school involvement event 17 (89.5) 39 (78.0) 0.491 28 (87.5) 37 (86.0) 1
Excellent or very good general health - child 18 (94.7) 41 (82.0) 0.264 29 (90.6) 37 (86.0) 0.724
High self-esteem - child 17 (89.5) 31 (63.3) 0.033 28 (87.5) 28 (65.1) 0.027
Well/Very well school performance 12 (63.2) 28 (56.0) 0.591 24 (75.0) 22 (51.2) 0.036
Excellent or very good emotional health - maternal 6 (31.6) 13 (26.0) 0.643 16 (50.0) 11 (25.6) 0.029
Quality time spent with children 12 (63.2) 29 (58.0) 0.697 25 (78.1) 20 (46.5) 0.006
High parenting sense of competence - efficacy 3 (20.0) 4 (11.4) 0.415 5 (25.0) 3 (9.4) 0.235
High parenting sense of competence - satisfaction 2 (13.3) 8 (22.9) 0.702 6 (30.0) 7 (21.2) 0.522
High child social competence 5 (33.3) 4 (11.4) 0.106 8 (40.0) 2 (6.1) 0.004
High parenting morale - 5 years 2 (13.3) 4 (11.4) 1 6 (30.0) 3 (9.1) 0.067
High maternal social support - 5 years 3 (20.0) 2 (5.9) 0.16 4 (21.1) 2 (6.1) 0.175
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