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Table 2 Instruments used during the baseline visit (PACMAN) and follow-up study visit (PACMAN2)

From: Inflammatory phenotypes underlying uncontrolled childhood asthma despite inhaled corticosteroid treatment: rationale and design of the PACMAN2 study

  Baseline visit (PACMAN) Follow-up (PACMAN2)
Questionnaires   
  Questions on general health, allergies, asthma and respiratory symptoms Questions on general health, allergies, asthma and respiratory symptoms
  Asthma control (ACQ-6) [19] Asthma control (ACQ-6) [19]
  - Childhood Asthma Control Test (c-ACT), Asthma Control Test (ACT) [20
  Questions on asthma control in the past 4 seasons [18] Questions on asthma control in the past 4 seasons [18]
  Environmental factors (passive smoking, pets, living environment) Environmental factors (passive smoking, pets, living environment)
Active smoking is assessed in children > 12 years of age
  Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) [21] -
  Healthcare utilization for respiratory symptoms Healthcare utilization for respiratory symptoms
  Exacerbations in the past year (ER visits/OCS usage) Exacerbations in the past year (ER visits/OCS usage)
  Demographics Demographics
  Current asthma medication use Current asthma medication use
  Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) [16] Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) [16] §
  - General RAND questionnaire [22]
  - Growth parameters, breast feeding and vaccination status
  - Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) [23
  - Paediatric and Adolescent Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ and AdolRQLQ) [24, 25
  - Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) [26
  - 6-item Otitis Media Questionnaire (OM-6) [27
  - Brouilette Score [28] §
  - Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for children and teenagers (FAQLQ-CF and FAQLQ-TF) [29, 30] §
  - Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index (SA-EASI) [31] §
  - Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and Infant’s Dermatitis Quality of Life Index Questionnaire [32] §
Inhalation technique   
  Inhalation technique (checklist) -
Medication history   
  Medication history through pharmacy system -
Lung function   
  Lung function testing and airway reversibility using hand-held diagnostic spirometer Lung function testing and airway reversibility in a clinical setting by a trained lung function technician
Exhaled breath   
  Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) (Niox Mino) Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) (Niox Mino)
  - Volatile Organic Compounds
Saliva   
  Saliva sample (Oragene) for DNA Saliva sample (Oragene) for DNA
Peripheral blood and plasma   
  - Peripheral blood and plasma sample
  1. § In the Electronic Portal, parents and children are asked to answer ISAAC screening questions which aim to screen on the presence of atopic diseases. Based on their initial answers, the participants will then be prompted by the system to complete additional disease-topic specific questionnaires [33].