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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of a subsample of participants from the first cohort of Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study in relation to breastfeeding exclusivity for 3 and 6 months †,1,2

From: Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study

Characteristics Exclusive breastfeeding
  For three months postpartum For six months postpartum
  Total No Yes p-value Total No Yes p-value
   n = 185 n = 217    n = 254 n = 46  
Parental socio-demographic factors         
Maternal age3, years 31.0 (6.0) 31.0 (6.0) 31.0 (5.0) 0.5394 31.0 (6.0) 31.0 (6.0) 32.0 (5.0) 0.0224
Maternal marital Status         
 Single/Divorced/Separated 11 (2.7) 6 (3.3) 5 (2.3) 0.7615 6 (2.0) 5 (2.0) 1 (2.2) 0.9995
 Married/Common-law partner 390 (97.3) 178 (96.7) 212 (97.7)   293 (98.0) 248 (98.0) 45 (97.8)  
Maternal education level         
 Less than secondary education 114 (28.4) 61 (33.0) 53 (24.4) 0.1646 83 (27.7) 75 (29.5) 8 (17.4) 0.0075
 Completed university undergraduate degree 196 (48.8) 85 (45.9) 111 (51.2)   146 (48.7) 127 (50.0) 19 (41.3)  
 Completed university post-graduate degree 92 (22.9) 39 (21.1) 53 (24.4)   71 (23.7) 52 (20.5) 19 (41.3)  
Paid job during pregnancy         
 Yes 323 (81.0) 150 (82.0) 173 (80.1) 0.7287 242 (81.5) 209 (83.3) 33 (71.7) 0.1007
 No 76 (19.0) 33 (18.0) 43 (19.9)   55 (18.5) 42 (16.7) 13 (28.3)  
Occupational status during pregnancy8         
 Full-time 247 (76.7) 117 (78.0) 130 (75.6) 0.7047 189 (78.4) 163 (78.4) 26 (78.8) 0.9995
 Part-time 75 (23.3) 33 (22.0) 42 (24.4)   52 (21.6) 45 (21.6) 7 (21.2)  
Canadian-born mother         
 No 62 (15.7) 33 (18.1) 29 (13.6) 0.2667 44 (14.9) 37 (14.7) 7 (15.9) 0.8205
 Yes 334 (84.3) 149 (81.9) 185 (86.4)   251 (85.1) 214 (85.3) 37 (84.1)  
Annual household income, CAD         
 <20,000 7 (1.8) 5 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 0.2775 2 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0.9925
 20,000-39,000 11 (2.8) 7 (3.8) 4 (1.9)   5 (1.7) 5 (2.0) 0 (0.0)  
 40,000-69,000 52 (13.2) 19 (10.4) 33 (15.6)   41 (13.9) 35 (14.1) 6 (13.0)  
 70,000-99,000 105 (26.6) 50 (27.3) 55 (25.9)   78 (26.4) 66 (26.5) 12 (26.1)  
 ≥100,000 220 (55.7) 102 (55.7) 118 (55.7)   169 (57.3) 141 (56.6) 28 (60.9)  
Household size3, n 2.0 (1.0) 2.0 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 0.2124 2.0 (1.0) 2.0 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 0.1354
Paternal education level         
 Less than secondary education 113 (40.8) 54 (46.2) 59 (36.9) 0.2706 90 (41.1) 79 (43.2) 11 (30.6) 0.0556
 Completed university undergraduate degree 111 (40.1) 44 (37.6) 67 (41.9)   87 (39.7) 74 (40.4) 13 (36.1)  
 Completed university post-graduate degree 53 (19.1) 19 (16.2) 34 (221.3)   42 (19.2) 30 (16.4) 12 (33.3)  
Paternal birth place         
 Canada 230 (83.0) 93 (79.5) 137 (85.6) 0.2377 181 (82.6) 150 (82.0) 31 (86.1) 0.6385
 Foreign countries 47 (17.0) 24 (20.5) 23 (14.4)   38 (17.4) 33 (18.0) 5 (13.9)  
Maternal health information         
Gravida3, n 2.0 (1.0) 2.0 (2.0) 2.0 (1.0) 0.1244 2.0 (1.0) 2.0 (1.0) 2.0 (2.0) 0.5484
Parity         
 Primiparous 222 (55.6) 117 (63.6) 105 (48.8) 0.0047 175 (58.9) 156 (62.2) 19 (41.3) 0.0136
 Multiparous 177 (44.4) 67 (36.4) 110 (51.2)   122 (41.1) 95 (37.8) 27 (58.7)  
Planned pregnancy         
 Yes 330 (82.3) 144 (78.3) 186 (85.7) 0.0697 249 (83.6) 207 (82.1) 42 (91.3) 0.1365
 No 71 (17.7) 40 (21.7) 31 (14.3)   49 (16.4) 45 (17.9) 4 (8.7)  
Pre-pregnancy weight3, kg 63.63 (15.89) 65.77 (17.35) 62.66 (14.69) 0.1324 63.63 (15.66) 64.09 (15.71) 61.36 (13.40) 0.0894
Pre-pregnancy BMI3,9, kg/m 2 22.87 (5.4) 23.32 (5.7) 22.35 (4.7) 0.0164 22.98 (5.4) 22.99 (5.4) 22.12 (5.3) 0.0484
Pre-pregnancy BMI categories9, kg/m 2         
 Underweight (≤18.5) 12 (3.1) 3 (1.7) 9 (4.2) 0.2665 10 (3.4) 1 (0.7) 9 (5.9) 0.0195
 Normal (18.6-24.9) 255 (64.9) 113 (62.4) 142 (67.0)   189 (64.5) 86 (61.0) 103 (67.8)  
 Overweight (25.0-29.9) 75 (19.1) 38 (21.0) 37 (17.5)   56 (19.1) 33 (23.4) 23 (15.1)  
 Obese (≥30) 51 (13.0) 27 (14.9) 24 (11.3)   38 (13.0) 21(14.9) 17 (11.2)  
IIFAS score10,11 67.06 (741) 64.42 (7.57) 69.08 (6.62) <0.00112 67.27 (7.59) 66.60 (7.63) 70.67 (6.44) 0.00112
  1. CAD: Canadian dollars; BMI: body mass index; IIFAS: Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale.
  2. Even though we evaluated several paternal factors in relation to breastfeeding exclusivity (e.g., paternal marital status, occupation, smoking habits, etc.) since the missing rate was high for many of paternal questions and participation rate was lower among fathers we chose to only include paternal birth place and education in this table.
  3. 1Values are n (%), unless otherwise noted.
  4. 2Denominators vary due to missing data.
  5. 3Median (interquartile range (IQR)).
  6. 4Mann-Whitney U Test.
  7. 5Fisher’s exact test.
  8. 6Pearson’s chi-square.
  9. 7Yates’ correction for continuity.
  10. 8Calculated only among mothers who were employed.
  11. 9BMI was calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by square of height in meters.
  12. 10Score ranges from 17-85, with higher scores indicating more positive attitudes toward breastfeeding.
  13. 11Mean (standard deviation (SD)).
  14. 12Independent sample t-test.