Skip to main content

Table 3 Demographic and clinical characteristics of sporadic preaxial polydactyly type I (PPD1), familial polydactyly (all types), and healthy control group

From: Epidemiology of isolated preaxial polydactyly type I: Data from the Polish Registry of Congenital Malformations (PRCM)

Characteristic Controls Sporadic PPD1 Familial Polydactyly
N = 303$ N = 459$ N = 353$
Count (%) Count (%) P-value OR [95% CI] Count (%) P-value OR [95% CI]
Gender
 Female (reference) 135 (44.6%) 200 (43.6%) 0.83 (NS) 154 (43.6%) 0.84 (NS)
 Male 168 (55.4%) 257 (56%) 1.03 [0.77, 1.38] 198 (56.1%) 1.03 [0.76, 1.41]
Residence type
 Urban (reference) 179 (60.3%) 282 (61.8%) 0.67 (NS) 210 (60%) 0.94 (NS)
 Rural 118 (39.7%) 174 (38.2%) 0.94 [0.69, 1.26] 140 (40%) 1.01 [0.74, 1.39]
Maternal age #
 19 years and less 20 (6.6%) 36 (7.8%)   28 (7.9%)  
 20-24 81 (26.7%) 147 (32%)   94 (26.6%)  
 25-29 110 (36.3%) 147 (32%) 0.57 (NS) 128 (36.3%) 0.95 (NS)
 30-34 63 (20.8%) 91 (19.8%) 0.99 [0.95, 1.03] 61 (17.3%) 1.00 [0.96, 1.04]
 35-39 25 (8.3%) 28 (6.1%)   28 (7.9%)  
 40 years and more 4 (1.3%) 5 (1.1%)   13 (3.7%)  
Paternal age #
 19 years and less 7 (2.3%) 11 (2.4%)   6 (1.7%)  
 20-24 36 (11.9%) 81 (17.6%)   52 (14.7%)  
 25-29 98 (32.3%) 154 (33.6%)   115 (32.6%)  
 30-34 74 (24.4%) 115 (25.1%) 0.27 (NS) 84 (23.8%) 0.95 (NS)
 35-39 39 (12.9%) 54 (11.8%) 0.98 [0.95, 1.02] 49 (13.9%) 1.00 [0.97, 1.04]
 40-44 20 (6.6%) 24 (5.2%)   26 (7.4%)  
 45-49 5 (1.7%) 5 (1.1%)   9 (2.5%)  
 50 years and more 2 (0.7%) 0 (0%)   3 (0.8%)  
Maternal education *
 Elementary or incomplete elementary 43 (14.2%) 63 (13.7%)   41 (11.6%)  
 Vocational 91 (30%) 115 (25.1%) 0.14 (NS) 105 (29.7%) 0.67 (NS)
 Secondary 108 (35.6%) 160 (34.9%) 1.16 [0.95, 1.42] 106 (30%) 1.05 [0.85, 1.30]
 Higher 61 (20.1%) 94 (20.5%)   87 (24.6%)  
Paternal education *
 Elementary or incomplete elementary 21 (6.9%) 51 (11.1%)   32 (9.1%)  
 Vocational 128 (42.2%) 196 (42.7%) 0.06 (NS) 135 (38.2%) 0.50 (NS)
 Secondary 83 (27.4%) 119 (25.9%) 0.81 [0.64, 1.01] 96 (27.2%) 1.09 [0.86, 1.38]
 Higher 36 (11.9%) 55 (12%)   65 (18.4%)  
Birthweight [per 500 g body weight]
 500-999 g 1 (0%) 2 (0.4%)   1 (0.3%)  
 1000-1499 1 (0.3%) 6 (1.3%)   1 (0.3%)  
 1500-1999 9 (0.3%) 9 (2%)   4 (1.1%)  
 2000-2499 46 (3%) 25 (5.4%) <0.0001 10 (2.8%) 0.32 (NS)
 2500-2999 101 (15.2%) 100 (21.8%) 0.69 [0.61, 0.79] 46 (13%) 0.93 [0.81, 1.07]
 3000-3499 102 (33.3%) 175 (38.1%)   140 (39.7%)  
 3500-3999 34 (33.7%) 101 (22%)   102 (28.9%)  
 4000-4499 7 (11.2%) 29 (6.3%)   41 (11.6%)  
 4500 g or more 0 (2.3%) 4 (0.9%)   4 (1.1%)  
Pregnancy length
 under 28 weeks 0 (0%) 1 (0.2%)   1 (0.3%)  
 28-31 1 (0.3%) 7 (1.5%) 0.57 (NS) 3 (0.8%) 0.48 (NS)
 32-36 15 (5%) 26 (5.7%) 0.98 [0.90, 1.06] 15 (4.2%) 1.03 [0.95, 1.13]
 37-41 271 (89.4%) 397 (86.5%)   305 (86.4%)  
 42 weeks or more 8 (2.6%) 20 (4.4%)   18 (5.1%)  
Pregnancy order
 1 126 (41.6%) 217 (47.3%)   155 (43.9%)  
 2 87 (28.7%) 147 (32%)   115 (32.6%)  
 3 45 (14.9%) 48 (10.5%) 0.02 39 (11%) 0.42 (NS)
 4 28 (9.2%) 29 (6.3%) 0.87 [0.77, 0.97] 15 (4.2%) 0.95 [0.85, 1.07]
 5 13 (4.3%) 5 (1.1%)   12 (3.4%)  
 6 2 (0.7%) 6 (1.3%)   5 (1.4%)  
 7 or more 2 (0.7%) 4 (0.9%)   7 (2%)  
Birth order
 1 135 (44.6%) 237 (51.6%)   166 (47%)  
 2 97 (32%) 152 (33.1%)   117 (33.1%)  
 3 36 (11.9%) 37 (8.1%) 0.01 35 (9.9%) 0.62 (NS)
 4 29 (9.6%) 19 (4.1%) 0.84 [0.74, 0.96] 12 (3.4%) 0.97 [0.86, 1.10]
 5 3 (1%) 5 (1.1%)   8 (2.3%)  
 6 1 (0.3%) 4 (0.9%)   6 (1.7%)  
 7 or more 2 (0.7%) 2 (0.4%)   4 (1.1%)  
Number of spontaneous abortions for 2nd or further pregnancy
 No (reference) 135 (76.3%) 182 (75.2%) 0.98 (NS) 155 (78.3%) 0.35 (NS)
 Yes 42 (23.7%) 57 (23.6%) 0.99 [0.63, 1.57] 38 (19.2%) 0.79 [0.48, 1.30]
  1. $ Marginal totals for some variables may be different because of missing values.
  2. NS: Not significant.
  3. # Common model of logistic regression of parents’ age.
  4. * Common model of logistic regression of parent’s education.