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Table 4 Immediate newborn care in facility births vs home births

From: Newborn care practices at home and in health facilities in 4 regions of Ethiopia

Indicator Overall Home birth Facility birth p-value
  Frequency Weighted percentage Frequency Weighted percentage Frequency Weighted percentage  
   (95% CI)   (95% CI)   (95% CI)  
Thermal care  
Proportion of newborns who were wiped/dried before delivery of the placenta* 132/197 63.2% 84/136 58.9% 48/61 76.6% 0.0124
(53.1, 73.3) (48.5, 69.3) (63.8, 89.4)
Proportion of newborns who were wrapped before delivery of the placenta* 176/206 82.3% 114/137 80.5% 62/69 87.3% 0.2004
(72.5, 92.1) (69.8, 91.2) (76.8, 97.8)
Placement of newborn immediately after delivery        
On the floor 6/217 2.8% 6/140 3.4% 0/77 0% 0.2273
(0.1, 5.5) (0.1, 7.7)
On the mother’s chest/belly 20/217 7.7% 3/140 2.1% 17/77 21.5% 0.000
(2.6, 12.7) (0, 4.6) (9.9, 33.1)
Beside the mother 72/217 38.5% 64/140 48.7% 8/77 12.9% 0.001
(29.3, 47.8) (40.4, 57.1) (2.8, 23.1)
With someone else 50/217 21.9% 43/140 27.0% 7/77 9.2% 0.0090
(14.8, 29.0) (16.9, 37.2) (2.3, 16.1)
On newborn bed/table 37/217 12.6% 5/140 2.3% 32/77 38.3% 0.000
(5.3, 19.8) (0, 5.2) (25.2, 51.4)
Other 24/217 13.0% 19/140 15.9% 5/77 5.7% 0.0240
(6.4, 19.6) (7.6, 24.3) (1.2, 10.2)
Don’t know 8/217 3.5% 0/140 0% 8/77 12.3% 0.0016
(0.2, 6.9) (14.0, 23.3)
Proportion of newborns placed in skin-to-skin position at some point on the day of birth 29/216 12.9% 10/140 7.7% 19/76 25.8% 0.0036
(6.7, 19.0) (1.8, 13.6) (13.6, 38.1)
Proportion of newborns whose bathing was delayed at least 24 hours 59/214 25.3% 29/139 18.7% 30/75 42.3% 0.0071
(16.7, 33.9) (10.1, 27.4) (27.1, 57.5)
Cord care   
Article used to tie the cord        
New string/thread 106/217 45.8% 65/140 41.8% 41/77 55.8% 0.2060
(30.2, 61.4) (22.6, 61.0) (41.1, 70.5)
String/thread 22/217 8.3% 10/140 6.1% 12/77 13.8% 0.1057
(3.8, 12.7) (1.8, 10.4) (3.9, 23.6)
Fiber from ensete plant 34/217 22.3% 34/140 31.3% 0/77 0% 0.0102
(6.7, 38.0) (12.2, 50.4)
Cord not tied 12/217 5.8% 12/140 8.1% 0/77 0% 0.2670
(0, 12.3) (0, 17.2)
Other 44/217 27.8% 43/140 37.9% 1/77 2.6% 0.0010
(11.3, 44.3) (17.7, 58.0) (0, 7.8)
Don’t know 33/217 12.4% 10/140 6.2% 23/77 27.8% 0.0004
(6.8, 17.9) (1.3, 11.1) (16.8, 38.9)
Instruments used to cut the cord        
New razor blade 124/218 63.5% 122/140 88.3% 2/78 2.3% 0.0000
(52.4, 74.6) (83.4, 93.2) (0, 5.7)
Previously used razor blade 13/218 4.7% 12/140 6.2% 1/78 1.1% 0.0747
(1.1, 8.3) (1.0, 11.3) (0, 3.3)
Scissors 54/218 20.0% 2/140 1.4% 52/78 65.8% 0.0000
(11.2, 28.7) (0, 3.6) (54.0, 77.6)
Other 2/218 1.6% 2/140 2.3% 0/78 0% 0.2778
(0, 5.2)
(0, 3.8)
Don’t know 25/218 10.2% 2/140 1.8% 23/78 30.8% 0.0000
(5.5, 14.8) (0, 4.3) (19.3, 42.2)
Applications to the cord immediately after cutting        
Nothing applied 137/217 65.2% 99/139 72.6% 38/78 47.1% 0.0286
(32.4, 61.8)
(54.3, 76.1) (58.4, 86.8)
Butter applied 36/217 16.9% 31/139 21.0% 5/78 7.0% 0.0208
(8.2, 25.7) (9.8, 32.1) (0, 14.0)
Other substance applied 8/217 3.0% 3/139 1.9% 5/78 5.7% 0.2367
(0, 6.0) (0, 4.6) (0, 13.3)
Don’t know 36/217 14.9% 6/139 4.6% 30/78 40.3% 0.0000
(9.7, 20.0) (1.3, 7.8) (27.4, 53.2)
Nutrition  
Proportion of newborns breastfed within the first hour 113/218 52.1% 69/140 50.2% 44/78 56.7% 0.3977
(43.3, 60.8) (38.8, 61.6) (46.2, 67.2)
Proportion of mothers who squeezed out and threw away the colostrum/first milk 94/217 44.5% 70/139 50.2% 24/78 30.4% 0.0160
(34.2, 54.8) (38.0, 62.5) (18.9, 41.8)
Proportion of newborns given something other than breast milk during the first 2 days 30/217 12.4% 18/139 11.9% 12/78 13.8% 0.6908
(7.6, 17.2) (5.8, 17.9) (6.3, 21.1)
Among newborns who were fed other foods/liquids during the first week, type of food given:**        
Plain water 8/30 32.7% 7/18 44.2% 1/12 8.2% 0.0571
(11.1, 54.3) (18.8, 69.5) (0, 26.0)
Sugar water 8/30 25.1% 4/18 21.4% 4/12 33.0% 0.5369
(8.4, 41.8) (9.4, 41.8) (1.2, 64.7)
Fresh butter 4/30 14.2% 4/18 20.9 0/12 0% 0.1308
(0, 29.5) (0.9, 9.5)
Milk (other than breast milk) 5/30 13.2% 1/18 3.9% 4/12 33.0% 0.0265
(1.3, 25.1) (0, 12.1) (4.9, 61.2)
Other 11/30 41.6% 7/18 45.1% 4/12 34.0% 0.5325
   (19.5, 63.6)   (14.6, 75.6)   (14.3, 53.8)  
  1. *“Don’t know” responses excluded; **More than one response allowed.