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Table 3 Emerging approaches to surfactant administration

From: Exogenous surfactant therapy in 2013: what is next? who, when and how should we treat newborn infants in the future?

Emerging approaches Advantages Disadvantages
MIST Nasopharyngeal instillation Painless Not well evaluated
Loss of surfactant
Laryngeal mask Supraglottic device Painful
Feeding catheter Endotracheal administration Under nasal CPAP Magill forceps
Laryngoscopy
Painful and traumatic?
Vascular catheter Endotracheal administration Laryngoscopy
Under nasal CPAP Painful and traumatic
Easy to use (rigid catheter)  
NIST Aerosolization Painless Technically challenging
  1. MIST: Minimally-Invasive Surfactant Therapy.
  2. NIST: Non-Invasive Surfactant Therapy.