Skip to main content

Table 3 Prevalence of chronic developmental health conditions in the NEC and matched control groups between 6–12 and 24–36 months of follow-up

From: Long term healthcare costs of infants who survived neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: a retrospective longitudinal study among infants enrolled in Texas Medicaid

Age: 6–12 Months      
Chronic Conditions Controls Medical NEC Surgical NEC Adjusted odds ratio‡ Adjusted odds ratio‡
(N = 2,109) (N = 141) (N = 62) (95% CI) (95% CI)
  n (%) n (%) n (%) Medical NEC vs. Controls Surgical NEC vs. Controls
BPD 98 (5%) 19 (14%) 16 (26%) 3 (1.8 – 5.6)** 4 (2–7)**
Malabsorption syndrome† 13 (1%) 2 (1%) 13 (21%) 2.3 (0.5 – 10) 47 (19–116)**
Failure to thrive 132 (6%) 22 (16%) 18 (29%) 3 (1.7 – 5)** 4 (2–6)**
NDD 168 (8%) 21 (15%) 16 (26%) 1.9 (1.2 – 3.2)** 2.4 (1.4 – 4.5)**
Cerebral palsy 17 (1%) 3 (2%) 2 (3%) 2.6 (0.7 – 9) 2.3 (0.5 – 10.8)
GI artificial openings present 42 (2%) 9 (6%) 15 (24%) 3.2 (1.5 – 6.9)** 9 (5–21)**
Metabolic disturbances § 58 (3%) 5 (4%) 8 (13%) 1.2 (0.5 – 3) 4.8 (2.1 – 10.7)**
Feeding difficulties 33 (2%) 8 (6%) 14 (23%) 4 (1.7 – 8.4)** 11 (5.2 – 21.8)**
Age: 24–36 Months      
Chronic Conditions Controls Medical NEC Surgical NEC Adjusted odds ratio‡ Adjusted odds ratio‡
(N = 951) (N= 70) (N = 35) (95% CI) (95% CI)
  n (%) n (%) n (%) Medical NEC vs. Controls Surgical NEC vs. Controls
BPD 14 (1%) 4 (6%) 5 (14%) 4.6 (1.4 – 15)** 5.5 (2–16)**
Malabsorption syndrome† 4 (0.4 %) 0 (0%) 7 (20%) - 62 (15–249)**
Failure to thrive 97 (10%) 6 (9%) 11 (31%) 0.8 (0.3 – 2) 3 (1.3 - 6)*
NDD 133 (14%) 13 (19%) 13 (37%) 1.5 (0.8 – 2.9) 2.6 (1.2 – 5.6)*
Cerebral palsy 35 (4%) 1 (1%) 4 (11%) 0.4 (0.05 – 3) 2.1 (0.7 – 6.4)
GI artificial openings present 35 (4%) 4 (6%) 10 (29%) 1.8 (0.6 – 5.3) 6 (3–14)**
Metabolic disturbances § 29 (3%) 3 (4%) 4 (11%) 1.4 (0.4 – 5) 3.4 (1.1 -10)*
Feeding difficulties 19 (2%) 3 (4%) 4 (11%) 2.4 (0.7 – 9) 4 (1.2 - 13)*
  1. BPD Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, ELBW extremely low birth weight, GI gastrointestinal, NDD Neurodevelopmental delay.
  2. **p<0.01 and *p<0.05.
  3. Odds ratios were obtained after adjusting for extremely low birth weight status using Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared tests.
  4. Malabsorption syndrome includes post-surgical non-absorption (ICD-9 579.3 commonly used to code for short bowel syndrome) and other unspecified intestinal malabsorption (ICD-9 579.9).
  5. §Metabolic disturbances include disorders of amino acid, carbohydrate, lipid and mineral metabolism, etc. (ICD-9 codes 270–279).