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Table 4 Risk factors for neonatal mortality (<28 days) and early mortality (<70 days) among 1132 live-born infants a

From: Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

  No. Neonatal mortality Early mortality
   Mortality rate (n) Hazard ratio (95% CI) Mortality rate (n) Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Infant Factors      
Sex      
Male 592 0.042 (24) 1.00 (0.56–1.79) 0.067 (37) 1.18 (0.73–1.92)
Female 537 0.042 (22)   0.056 (29)  
Gestation      
Preterm 182 0.111 (19) 3.87 (2.15–6.95) 0.137(23) 3.03 (1.83–5.03)
Term 932 0.030 (27)   0.049 (43)  
Birth weight, g      
<2500 161 0.169 (26) 8.85 (4.89–15.99) 0.239 (36) 8.69 (5.30–14.24)
≥2500 963 0.020 (19)   0.031 (28)  
APGAR score at 5 min      
<7 17 0.647 (11) 42.78 (20.89–87.59) 0.718 (12) 34.17 (17.78–65.66)
≥7 995 0.027 (26)   0.045 (42)  
APGAR score at 1 min      
<7 30 0.580 (17) 43.32 (22.78–82.39) 0.627 (18) 31.06 (17.55–55.00)
≥7 989 0.023 (22)   0.041 (38)  
Mode of delivery      
C–section 35 0.205 (7) 6.12 (2.74–13.66) 0.239 (8) 5.00 (2.39–10.46)
Vaginal 1096 0.038 (40)   0.057 (59)  
Maternal Health Factors      
CD4 cells/mm 3      
<350 616 0.052 (31) 1.62 (0.89–2.96) 0.084 (49) 2.28 (1.33–3.92)
≥350 513 0.032 (16)   0.037 (18)  
Hemoglobin, g/dl      
<10 334 0.062 (20) 1.76 (0.99–3.14) 0.089 (28) 1.71 (1.05–2.78)
≥10 782 0.036 (27)   0.053 (39)  
Plasma viral load, copies/ml      
≥50,000 510 0.055 (27) 1.66 (0.93–2.95) 0.085 (41) 1.95 (1.19–3.18)
<50,000 617 0.034 (20)   0.045 (26)  
Clinical stage      
Symptomatic 434 0.047 (20) 1.16 (0.65–2.07) 0.070 (29) 1.20 (0.74–1.95)
Asymptomatic 698 0.040 (27)   0.058 (38)  
>30 days of diarrhea in the 6 months prior to enrollment
Yes 8 0.286 (2) 7.18 (1.74–29.60) 0.286 (2) 5.21 (1.28–21.28)
No 1124 0.041 (45)   0.061 (65)  
History of tuberculosis      
Yes 107 0.113 (12) 3.32 (1.72–6.39) 0.133 (14) 2.55 (1.41–4.59)
No 1025 0.035 (35)   0.055 (53)  
BMI, kg/m 2      
<18.5 151 0.027 (4) 2.84 (0.85–9.42) 0.061 (9) 2.86 (1.29–6.37)
≥18.5 858 0.009 (8)   0.022 (18)  
Maternal death before infant’s death      
Yes 18 0.056 (1) 1.28 (0.18–9.25) 0.278 (5) 4.85 (1.96–12.07)
No 1114 0.043 (46)   0.059 (62)  
Maternal death <70 days      
Yes 18 0.282 (5) 7.95 (3.14–20.09) 0.521 (9) 11.47 (5.68–23.18)
No 1114 0.039 (42)   0.055 (58)  
Stopped breastfeeding <70 days      
Yes 36 0.112 (4) 2.75 (0.99–7.66) 0.260 (9) 4.75 (2.35–9.58)
No 1096 0.041 (43)   0.056 (58)  
Socioeconomic and Clinical Factors      
Age, year      
<20 103 0.080 (8) 2.29 (1.05–4.99) 0.104 (10) 2.02 (1.02–4.02)
20–30 828 0.038 (30) 1.0 0.056 (44) 1.0
>30 201 0.046 (9) 1.24 (0.59–2.60) 0.067 (13) 1.21 (0.65–2.24)
Education      
Some (0–8th grade level) 708 0.040 (27) 0.81 (0.46–1.45) 0.061 (40) 0.90 (0.55–1.47)
HS grade (≥9th grade level) 424 0.049 (20)   0.066 (27)  
Electricity      
No 676 0.043 (28) 1.00 (0.56–1.79) 0.068 (43) 1.22 (0.74–2.00)
Yes 456 0.043 (19)   0.055 (24)  
Food run out at least 1 day in last month      
Yes 247 0.033 (8) 0.72 (0.34–1.54) 0.060 (14) 0.93 (0.51–1.67)
No 884 0.046 (39)   0.064 (53)  
# of children (<5 aged)      
2+ 163 0.032 (5) 0.71 (0.28–1.79) 0.046 (7) 0.69 (0.31–1.50)
0 –1 969 0.045 (42)   0.066 (60)  
# of children (5–16 aged)      
2+ 360 0.026 (9) 0.49 (0.24–1.02) 0.037 (13) 0.49 (0.27–0.90)
0 –1 772 0.051 (38)   0.075 (54)  
  1. a All analyses are unadjusted.