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Table 3 Risk factors for low birth weight (<2500g) and preterm birth among 1132 live-born infants a

From: Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

  No. of LBW (%) Relative risk (95% CI) No. of preterm birth (%) Relative risk (95% CI)
Infant Factors     
Gender     
Male 79/587 (13.5) 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 97/583 (16.6) 1.03 (0.79–1.35)
Female 82/535 (15.3)   85/528 (16.1)  
Maternal Health Factors     
CD4 cells/mm 3     
<350 105/611 (17.2) 1.57 (1.16–2.12) 108/608 (17.8) 1.24 (0.94–1.63)
≥350 56/510 (11.0)   72/503 (14.3)  
Hemoglobin, g/dl     
<10 66/330 (20.0) 1.67 (1.25–2.23) 54/325 (16.6) 1.04 (0.78–1.40)
≥10 93/778 (12.0)   123/773 (15.9)  
Plasma viral load, copies/ml     
≥50,000 96/505 (19.0) 1.82 (1.36–2.45) 94/500 (18.8) 1.32 (1.01–1.72)
<50,000 64/614 (10.4)   87/609 (14.3)  
Clinical stage     
Symptomatic 73/431 (16.9) 1.33 (1.00–1.78) 68/427 (15.9) 0.96 (0.73–1.26)
Asymptomatic 88/693 (12.7)   114/687 (16.6)  
History of tuberculosis     
Yes 28/106 (26.4) 2.02 (1.42–2.88) 23/105 (21.9) 1.39 (0.94–2.05)
No 133/1018 (13.1)   159/1009 (15.8)  
History of having swollen glands     
Yes 29/138 (21.0) 1.57 (1.09–2.25) 34/138 (24.6) 1.62 (1.17–2.25)
No 132/984 (13.4)   148/975 (15.2)  
BMI, kg/m 2     
<18.5 37/150 (24.7) 2.41 (1.71–3.39) 34/146 (23.3) 1.76 (1.25–2.47)
≥18.5 88/858 (10.3)   112/845 (13.3)  
Socioeconomic and Clinical Factors     
Age, year     
<20 13/101 (12.9) 0.92 (0.54–1.57) 23/101 (22.8) 1.35 (0.92–2.00)
20–30 115/824 (14.0) 1.0 137/814 (16.8) 1.0
>30 33/199 (16.6) 1.19 (0.83–1.69) 22/199 (11.1) 0.66 (0.43–1.00)
Education     
Some (0–8th grade level) 101/702 (14.4) 1.01 (0.75–1.36) 127/692 (18.4) 1.41 (1.05–1.89)
HS grade (≥9th grade level) 60/422 (14.2)   55/422 (13.0)  
Electricity     
No 102/671 (15.2) 1.17 (0.87–1.57) 119/668 (17.8) 1.26 (0.95–1.67)
Yes 59/453 (13.0)   63/446 (14.1)  
Food run out at least 1 day in last month     
Yes 32/244 (13.1) 0.89 (0.62–1.28) 46/245 (18.8) 1.20 (0.89–1.62)
No 129/879 (14.7)   136/868 (15.7)  
  1. a All analyses are unadjusted.