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Table 2 Risk factors for miscarriage and stillbirth among a cohort of 1229 HIV-infected women a

From: Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

  Ratio of miscarriages/Live births (per 100) Relative risk (95% CI) Ratio of stillbirths/Live births (per 100) Relative risk (95% CI)
Maternal Health Factors     
CD4 cells/mm 3     
<350 24/652 (3.7) 2.20 (1.03–4.69) 19/647 (2.9) 1.44 (0.69–3.00)
≥350 9/538 (1.7)   11/540 (2.0)  
Hemoglobin, g/dl     
<10 12/352 (3.4) 1.34 (0.67–2.70) 7/347 (2.0) 0.73 (0.31–1.68)
≥10 21/826 (2.5)   23/828 (2.8)  
Plasma viral load, copies/ml     
≥50,000 19/540 (3.5) 1.62 (0.82–3.20) 19/540 (3.5) 2.05 (0.99–4.28)
<50,000 14/645 (2.2)   11/642 (1.7)  
Clinical stage     
Symptomatic 13/459 (2.8) 0.91 (0.47–1.78) 20/466 (4.3) 3.12 (1.47–6.61)
Asymptomatic 23/740 (3.1)   10/727 (1.4)  
Socioeconomic and Clinical Factors     
Age, year     
<20 3/117 (2.6) 0.89 (0.27–2.90) 5/119 (4.2) 1.73 (0.66–4.49)
20-30 25/867 (2.9) 1.0 21/863 (2.4) 1.0
>30 8/215 (3.7) 1.29 (0.59–2.82) 4/211 (1.9) 0.78 (0.27–2.25)
Education     
Some (0-8th grade) 26/755 (3.4) 1.53 (0.74–3.14) 22/751 (2.9) 1.62 (0.73–3.60)
HS grade (≥ 9th grade) 10/444 (2.3)   8/442 (1.8)  
Electricity     
No 22/718 (3.1) 1.05 (0.54–2.04) 20/716 (2.8) 1.33 (0.63–2.82)
Yes 14/481 (2.9)   10/477 (2.1)  
Previous pregnancy     
No 7/169 (4.1) 1.47 (0.66–3.30) 8/170 (4.7) 2.19 (0.99–4.83)
Yes 29/1030 (2.8)   22/1023 (2.2)  
Previous miscarriages     
Yes 7/111 (6.3) 2.37 (1.06–5.28) 5/109 (4.6) 1.99 (0.78–5.09)
No 29/1059 (2.7)   25/1084 (2.3)  
Previous stillbirths     
Yes 2/70 (2.9) 0.95 (0.23–3.87) 1/69 (1.5) 0.56 (0.08–4.06)
No 34/1129 (3.0)   29/1124 (2.6)  
Rapid plasma reagin test     
Positive 5/193 (2.6) 0.89 (0.35–2.29) 8/196 (4.1) 1.72 (0.78–3.81)
Negative 27/932 (2.9)   22/927 (2.4)  
  1. a All analyses are unadjusted.