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Table 1 Characteristics for all subjects and by human milk intake

From: Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

   Group by proportion of enteral intake as human milk  
   All subjects   <25%   25-50%   50-75%   >>75%   p value*
  n = 171 n = 17 n = 30 n = 36 n = 88  
Male sex n (%) 85 (49) 6 (35) 12 (40) 21 (58) 45 (51) 0.52
Gestational age, weeks, median (IQR) 27 28.43 26.86 26.64 27 0.63
  (25.4, 28.9) (25.4, 29.6) (25.4, 29.0) (25.7, 28.5) (25.6, 28.8)  
Birthweight, g, median (IQR) 889 1083 861 848 880 0.31
  (724, 1064) (778, 1184) (736, 1091) (717, 1011) (719, 1052)  
Birthweight z-score, median (IQR) −0.40 −0.32 −0.19 −0.48 −0.45 0.98
  (−0.99, 0.29) (−0.52, 0.05) (−0.89, 0.12) (−1.15, 0.29) (−0.93, 0.33)  
SGA at birth n (%) 27 (16) 3 (18) 4 (13) 7 (19) 13 (15) 0.89
Maternal antenatal steroids n (%) n = 163 132 (81) 14 (88) 22 (79) 30 (88) 65 (78) 0.55
Postnatal dexamethasone n (%) 53 (31) 5 (29) 10 (30) 12 (34) 25 (28) 0.90
Age at first enteral feeding, days, median (IQR) 2 (1, 2) 2 (1, 2) 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 2) 2 (1, 2) 0.34
Age at human milk fortification, days, median (IQR) (n = 161) 14 (9, 22) 10 (6, 25) 19 (8, 25) 13 (10, 20) 14 (9, 21) 0.74
Central line days, median (IQR) 22 17 26 22 20 0.008
  (13, 33) (9, 27) (15, 37) (14, 34) (13, 31)  
NEC n (%) 3 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (3) 2 (2) 1
ROP n (%) 63 (38) 7 (47) 14 (50) 11 (33) 27 (33) 0.32
PDA n (%) 85 (49) 5 (29) 16 (53) 17 (49) 45 (51) 0.40
Sepsis n (%) 26 (15) 3 (18) 6 (20) 9 (25) 8 (9) 0.09
IVH n (%) 31 (18) 1 (6) 4 (13) 2 (6) 23 (27) 0.02
Oxygen at discharge n (%) 116 (67) 11 (65) 20 (67) 23 (64) 60 (68) 0.97
Postmenstrual age at discharge, weeks, median (IQR) 38.7 (37.1, 40.4) 37.85 (37.1, 40.9) 39.92 (36.9, 41.3) 39.21 (37.42, 40.79) 38.27 (3.07, 39.6) 0.01
Length of stay, days, median (IQR) 79 (63, 96) 71 (56, 124) 89 (63, 103) 84 (69, 100) 77 (61, 94) 0.18
  1. * Chi-squared, Fisher’s exact test, or ANOVA across all groups.