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Table 1 Relative Rates of Past Six-Month Substance Use and Individual-Level Risk Factors

From: Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: a preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth

  Hispanic Caucasian African-American American Indian/Alaska Native Test for Difference
Alcohol Quantity and Frequency (Abbrev. RAPI) .20a (.77) .34a (.78) -.07b (.81) .19ab (.69) F(3,430) = 4.19, p < .01
Tobacco      
   Age at first use 13.00a (2.38) 12.15b (2.79) 13.21a (2.57) 12.68ab (2.11) F(3,418) = 3.21, p < .05
   Number of cigarettes per day* 3.89a (2.33) 5.11b (2.31) 4.16a (2.33) 4.58ab (2.59) F(3,426) = 6.00, p < .001
Marijuana      
   Age at first use 11.39a (2.44) 11.49ab (2.37) 12.23b (2.19) 11.69ab (2.27) F(3,548) = 3.93, p < .01
   Frequency of marijuana use** 5.79 (2.66) 6.23 (2.71) 5.69 (2.77) 5.54 (2.93) F(3,388) = .85, p = .47
Hard Drug Composite      
   Number of hard drugs used .61a (1.26) 1.05b (1.49) .20c (.58) .69ab (1.38) F(3,633) = 11.31, p < .001
In School (% yes) 79.3% a 72.2% b 92.4% c 76.5% b χ²(3, n = 649) = 21.38, p < .001
Working (% yes) 20.9% 20.4% 18.8% 22.0% χ²(3, n = 651) = .46, p = .93
Self esteem 3.32 ab (.50) 3.24 b (.56) 3.43a (.45) 3.32 ab (.50) F(3,647) = 3.62, p = .01
Reliability by group (α) .72 .83 .71 .79  
Externalizing behavior 1.59 a (.29) 1.72 b (.29) 1.60a (.31) 1.75 b (.31) F(3,647) = 9.85, p < .001
Reliability by group (α) .88 .87 .88 .88  
  1. Note: Means not sharing the same subscript are significantly different at p < .05 controlling for experimentwise error rate. All standard deviations are represented in parentheses ( ) underneath the respective mean value.
  2. *1-10 scale where 1 = none, 2 = 1 cigarette, 3 = 2-3 cigarettes, 4 = 4-6 cigarettes, 5 = 7-9 cigarettes, 6 = 10-12 cigarettes, 7 = 13-15 cigarettes, 8 = 16-18 cigarettes, 9-19-20 cigarettes, 10 = more than 20 cigarettes
  3. **1-8 scale where 1 = occasionally, 2 = once a month, 3 = 2-3 times a month, 4 = 4-5 times a month, 5 = once a week, 6 = 2-3 times a week, 7 = 4-5 times a week, 8 = every day