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Table 1 Association of family-based factors with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children (n = 1860)

From: Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children

  Total
(n = 1860)
Thina
(n = 601)
Normalb
(n = 943)
Overweightc
(n = 176)
Obesed
(n = 140)
Significance
Family-based factors n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) χ2 P value
Parental education        
   Illiterate 366 (19.7) 163 (44.5) 193 (52.7) 8 (2.2) 02 (0.5) 161.56 < 0.001
   High school 496 (26.7) 193 (38.9) 255 (51.4) 33 (6.7) 15 (3.0)   
   College 531 (28.5) 142 (26.7) 268 (50.5) 66 (12.4) 55 (10.4)   
   Higher education 467 (25.1) 103 (22.1) 227 (48.6) 69 (14.8) 68 (14.6)   
Parental working status        
   Father only 1465 (78.8) 496 (33.9) 742 (50.6) 125 (8.5) 102 (7.0) 14.32 0.002
   Both parents 395 (21.2) 105 (26.6) 201 (50.9) 51 (12.9) 38 (9.6)   
Siblings        
   No 26 (1.4) 6 (23.1) 11 (42.3) 4 (15.4) 5 (19.2) 98.33 < 0.001
   1-3 1008 (54.2) 262 (26.0) 511 (50.7) 121 (12.0) 114 (11.3)   
   > 3 826 (44.4) 333 (40.3) 421 (51.0) 51 (6.2) 21 (2.5)   
Persons in child's living room        
   No 116 (6.2) 24 (20.7) 48 (41.4) 28 (24.1) 16 (13.8) 77.84 < 0.001
   1-3 791 (42.5) 212 (26.8) 420 (53.1) 86 (10.9) 73 (9.2)   
   > 3 953 (51.2) 365 (38.3) 475 (49.8) 62 (6.5) 51 (5.4)   
Smoking in living place        
   Yes 546 (29.4) 194 (35.5) 263 (48.2) 52 (9.5) 37 (6.8) 4.04 0.731
   No 1314 (70.6) 407 (31.0) 680 (51.8) 124 (9.4) 103 (7.8)   
Neighborhood income        
   Low 651 (35.0) 293 (45.0) 316 (48.5) 28 (4.3) 14 (2.2) 145.68 < 0.001
   Middle 910 (48.9) 247 (27.1) 486 (53.4) 98 (10.8) 79 (8.7)   
   High 299 (16.1) 61 (20.4) 141 (47.2) 50 (16.7) 47 (15.7)   
  1. a < -1SD BMI-for-age z-score relative to the World Health Organization reference 2007
  2. b-1SD to +1SD BMI-for-age z-score relative to the World Health Organization reference 2007
  3. c > +1SD to +2SD BMI-for-age z-score relative to the World Health Organization reference 2007
  4. d > +2SD BMI-for-age z-score relative to the World Health Organization reference 2007