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Table 4 Vitamins: The average levels of vitamins measured in the Neurotypical group and the Autism Treatment and Autism Placebo groups (pre and post) who completed the study are reported below, along with their standard deviations.

From: Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

Vitamins Units Neuro-typicals
(n = 44)
Arizona Treatment Group
(N = 18)
Arizona Placebo Group
(N = 22)
    Pre Post % change p-value Pre Post % change p-value
Vit. A (plasma) ug/100 ml 54.9
+/- 12
62.3
+/- 12
59.0
+/-13
-5% n.s. 50.2
+/- 7.2
52.9
+/-13
+5% n.s.
Total Carotenes
(beta carotene and other carotenes, in plasma)
ug/
100 ml
178
+/-53
158
+/- 53
170
+/- 65
+7% n.s. 136
+/- 53
150
+/-59
+10% n.s.
Vit B1
Thiamine
(WB)
ug/l 63
+/-9
63
+/- 12
80
+/-12
+27% 0.0005 65
+/-9
65
+/-11
0% n.s.
Vit B2
Riboflavin
(WB)
ug/l 282
+/-52
291
+/- 42
295
+/-36
1% n.s. 272
+/- 45
262
+/-55
-3% n.s.
Vit B3
Niacin and Niacinamide
(WB)
ug/l 7.07
+/-1.0
6.7
+/- 1.1
7.3
+/-0.9
+9% 0.04 7.1
+/- 1.3
7.2
+/-1.0
+1% n.s.
Vit B5
Pantothenic Acid
(WB)
ug/l 714
+/-180
654
+/- 104
748
+/-170
+14% 0.06 600
+/- 117
629
+/-159
+5% n.s.
Vit B6 (as P5P in RBC) ug/l 15.2
+/-5.3
20.3
+/- 15
58.1
+/-24
+187% 0.00001 17.8
+/- 14
16.1
+/-11
-10% n.s.
Folic Acid (serum) ug/l 18.7
+/-6.1
20.1
+/- 7.5
26.3
+/-7.1
+31% 0.03 15.3
+/- 4.8
17.8
+/-8.2
17% 0.09
Vit B12
(plasma)
ng/l 676
+/-215
696
+/- 231
835
+/-259
+20% 0.002 690
+/- 240
639
+/-246
-7% n.s.
Vit C
(plasma)
mg/
100 ml
1.33
+/-0.46
1.59
+/- 0.60
2.08
+/-0.34
+31% 0.007 1.60
+/- 0.59
1.55
+/-0.51
-3% n.s.
Vit D3
(25-hydroxy in plasma)
ug/l 28.6+/-8.5 29.6
+/- 8.3
25.4
+/-6.2
-14% 0.04 28.9
+/- 8.7
25.9
+/-7.8
-10% n.s.
Total Vit E (serum) mg/
100 ml
0.90
+/-0.32
0.78
+/- 0.16
0.97
+/-0.21
+24% 0.002 0.75
+/- 0.19
0.84
+/-0.24
+12% n.s.
Biotin (WB) ng/l 491
+/-164
395
+/- 115
595
+/-225
+51% 0.008 377
+/- 88
527
+/-162
+40% 0.001
Vit K (plasma) nmol/l 295
+/- 189
288
+/- 116
330
+/- 165
+15% n.s. 317
+/- 197
277
+/- 98
-13% n.s.
Vitamin-like substances           
Free Choline
(RBC)
mg/l 5.6
+/- 1.7
6.7
+/- 3.5
5.9
+/- 2.0
-12% n.s. 6.4
+/- 2.3
7.0
+/- 1.7
+10% n.s.
Total Choline
(RBC)
mg/l 310
+/- 51.4
363
+/- 59
343
+/- 43
-5% n.s. 361
+/- 67
368
+/- 42
+2% n.s.
Lipoic Acid
(plasma)
ug/l 2.9
+/- 1.2
3.1
+/- 1.8
2.3
+/- 0.7
-22% n.s. 2.3
+/- 1.5
2.1
+/- 1.2
-9% n.s.
Biomarkers of functional need for vitamins           
FIGLU ug/l 1.62
+/- 0.72
1.87
+/- 0.93
1.32
+/- 0.64
-29% 0.01 2.11
+/- 0.91
1.85
+/- 0.98
-12% n.s.
Methylmalonic Acid mg/g-creat 7.2
+/- 4.8
8.2
+/- 5.6
4.8
+/- 4.2
-41% 0.03 6.7
+/- 5.7
8.7
+/- 10.4
+30% n.s.
N-methyl-nicotinamide mg/g-creat 3.44
+/- 2.1
4.62
+/- 3.5
3.1
+/- 1.6
-33% n.s. 4.94
+/- 5.1
5.15
+/- 3.1
+4% n.s.
Kryptopyrroles ug/dl 35.8
+/- 15
38.0
+/- 23
36.2
+/- 29
-5% n.s. 40.3
+/- 29
38.1
+/- 24
-5% n.s.
  1. The p-value for a t-test comparison of the change in the level is reported. If the p-value is below 0.05 then the result is highlighted.