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Table 7 Socio-demographic correlates of central obesity among Pakistani primary school children aged five to twelve years (n = 1860)

From: Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

  Total Sample (n = 1860) Centrally Obesea (n = 189)
Characteristics n (%) n (%) P Value
Gender    
   Boys 977 (52.5) 93 (9.5) 0.335
   Girls 883 (47.5) 96 (10.9)  
Grade    
   One 372 (20.0) 29 (7.8) < 0.001
   Two 372 (20.0) 18 (4.8)  
   Three 372 (20.0) 45 (12.1)  
   Four 372 (20.0) 55 (14.8)  
   Five 372 (20.0) 42 (11.3)  
Area and socioeconomic status (SES)    
   Urban with high SES 465 (25.0) 101 (21.7) < 0.001
   Urban with middle SES 465 (25.0) 58 (12.5)  
   Urban with low SES 465 (25.0) 28 (6.0)  
   Rural (low/disadvantaged SES) 465 (25.0) 2 (0.4)  
Neighborhood income    
   Low 651 (35.0) 27 (4.1) < 0.001
   Middle 910 (48.9) 97 (10.7)  
   High 299 (16.1) 65 (21.7)  
Parental education    
   Illiterate 366 (19.7) 6 (1.6) < 0.001
   High school 496 (26.7) 25 (5.0)  
   College 531 (28.5) 71 (13.4)  
   Higher education 467 (25.1) 87 (18.6)  
  1. a≥90th age- and gender-specific waist circumference (WC) percentile and ≥0.5 waist-height ratio (WHtR)