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  1. Benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BCWG) is a common condition in children in Asia and is generally not associated with pH or electrolyte imbalances. When BCWG is diagnosed, a lumbar puncture is usu...

    Authors: Xiao-sheng Hao, Jian-min Liang, Xue-mei Wu, Yun-peng Hao, Jiang-tao Wang and Song-yan Liu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:516

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Adults often have difficulty instilling eye drops in their own eyes, but little has been documented about the difficulties experienced by parents when administering eye drops to their young children, where the...

    Authors: Gloria C. Law, Alpaslan Bülbül, Christina J. Jones and Helen Smith

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:514

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Although symptoms and signs of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) in children are milder than adults, there are reports of more severe cases which were defined as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (...

    Authors: Leila Shahbaznejad, Mohammad Reza Navaeifar, Ali Abbaskhanian, Fatemeh Hosseinzadeh, Golnar Rahimzadeh and Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:513

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Knowledge of the prevailing infant care practices and their effects is important to inform practice and public programs. Infant massage is a traditional practice in India but remains less studied. This study w...

    Authors: Sarika Chaturvedi, Bharat Randive, Ashish Pathak, Sharad Agarkhedkar, Girish Tillu, Gary L. Darmstadt and Bhushan Patwardhan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:512

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Reports suggest that Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have not reduced leukemia mortality compared to high-income countries. However, updated trends remain largely unknown in the region. Given that...

    Authors: J. Smith Torres-Roman, Bryan Valcarcel, Pedro Guerra-Canchari, Camila Alves Dos Santos, Isabelle Ribeiro Barbosa, Carlo La Vecchia, Katherine A. McGlynn and Dyego Leandro Bezerra de Souza

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:511

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To develop and evaluate machine learning algorithms to ascertain attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) using diagnostic codes in the medical record.

    Authors: Yu Shi, Phillip J. Schulte, Andrew C. Hanson, Michael J. Zaccariello, Danqing Hu, Sheri Crow, Randall P. Flick and David O. Warner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:510

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Attaining the recommended level of complementary feeding practices remains a serious challenge in many developing countries. Complementary foods are usually untimely initiated, which has adverse consequences o...

    Authors: Chalachew Abiyu and Tefera Belachew

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:509

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in early childhood. Vibration therapy (VT) is a promising rehabilitation approach for children with CP with potential to impact mobility, bon...

    Authors: Alena Adaikina, Paul L. Hofman and Silmara Gusso

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:508

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Rapid weight gain (RWG) during infancy increases the risk of excess weight later in life. Nutrition- and feeding practices associated with RWG need to be further examined. The present study aimed to examine nu...

    Authors: Annelie Lindholm, Stefan Bergman, Bernt Alm, Ann Bremander, Jovanna Dahlgren, Josefine Roswall, Carin Staland-Nyman and Gerd Almquist-Tangen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:507

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Intellectual Disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations that affect intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, and practical skills which directly interfere with interpersonal relationships ...

    Authors: Luan Freitas Oliveira, Tiago Fernando Chaves, Nathacha Baretto, Gisele Rozone de Luca, Ingrid Tremel Barbato, Jorge Humberto Barbato Filho, Maristela Ocampos and Angelica Francesca Maris

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:506

    Content type: Research article

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  11. A child’s home and family environment plays a vital role in neuro-cognitive and emotional development. Assessment of a child’s home environment and social circumstances is an crucial part of holistic Paediatri...

    Authors: DJ Foley, JK Hannon, CS O’Gorman and AM Murphy

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:505

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Pediatric patients with genetic disorders have a higher incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) regardless of their heart defects. Filamin A (FLNA) mutation is recently recognized to be associated with...

    Authors: Xiaoxian Deng, Shanshan Li, Qiu Qiu, Bowen Jin, Menghuan Yan, Yuanpin Hu, Yang Wu, Hongmei Zhou, Gangcheng Zhang and Xuan Zheng

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:504

    Content type: Case report

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  13. We sought to identify perceptions of neurorehabilitation challenges for paediatric cerebral malaria (CM) survivors post-hospital discharge at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Authors: Alexandra Boubour, Sebastian Mboma, Tracy Võ, Gretchen L. Birbeck, Karl B. Seydel, Macpherson Mallewa, Dorothy Chinguo, Melissa Gladstone, Suraya Mohamed and Kiran T. Thakur

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:503

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The concentration of under-5 child morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia in developing countries reflects the social inequities. This study aimed to map and assess the spatial risk for hospitalization due t...

    Authors: Juliana Coelho Pina, Luana Seles Alves, Luiz Henrique Arroyo, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio, Ellen Cristina Gondim, Maria Cândida de Carvalho Furtado and Débora Falleiros de Mello

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:502

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The long-term prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) depends on the severity of renal involvement, and crescent formation is considered an important risk factor for poor prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein purp...

    Authors: Yong-Rui Song, Wan-Liang Guo, Mao Sheng, Qiang Lin, Xue-Ming Zhu and Xiao-Zhong Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:501

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Preoperative diagnosis of total colonic aganglionosis is important for the rational choice of treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of radiographic signs on preoperative bar...

    Authors: Jiayu Yan, Jihang Sun, Rongchang Wu, Sarah Siyin Tan, Yongwei Chen, Yun Peng and Yajun Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:499

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Stunting affects up to one-third of the children in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs) and has been correlated with decline in cognitive capacity and vaccine immunogenicity. Early identification of infants...

    Authors: Elizabeth Harrison, Sana Syed, Lubaina Ehsan, Najeeha T. Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Fayyaz Umrani, Sheraz Ahmed, Najeeb Rahman, Sadaf Jakhro, Jennie Z. Ma, Molly Hughes and S. Asad Ali

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:498

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) is a modular instrument, designed to integrate generic and disease specific measures, and includes both self- and proxy-reports. The aim of the study was to ass...

    Authors: Peter Sand, Anna Nilsson Kleiberg, Marizela Kljajić and Birgitta Lannering

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:497

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Training volume is associated with direct and indirect pathways of bone adaptations. In addition, training volume is a training variable associated with lean soft tissue (LST), which has been shown to be an im...

    Authors: Pedro Henrique Narciso, André Oliveira Werneck, Rafael Luiz-de-Marco, Yuri da Silva Ventura Faustino-da-Silva, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:496

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Girls who experience early-life familial stress may have heightened risk of early puberty, which has adverse implications for adolescent and adult health. We assessed the association between household intactne...

    Authors: Sara Aghaee, Julianna Deardorff, Louise C. Greenspan, Charles P. Quesenberry Jr., Lawrence H. Kushi and Ai Kubo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:464

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility and soft tissue vulnerable to blunt injury. Early recognition and ...

    Authors: Wei-Ching Chiu, Shu-Huey Chen, Mei-Chen Lo and Yung-Ting Kuo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:495

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Skeletal age (SA) is considered the best method of assessing biological maturation. The aim of this study was to determine intra-observer (reproducibility) and inter-observer agreement of SA values obtained vi...

    Authors: Yuri V. Faustino-da-Silva, Diogo V. Martinho, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, João Valente-dos-Santos, Jorge Conde, Tomás G. Oliveira, Enio R. V. Ronque, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Rômulo A. Fernandes and Lauren B. Sherar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:494

    Content type: Research article

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  23. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ethan A. Canty, Benjamin N. Fogel, Erich K. Batra, Eric W. Schaefer, Jessica S. Beiler and Ian M. Paul

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:493

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:468

  24. Concepts such as participation and environment may differ across cultures. Consequently, to use a measure like the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) in other than the origin...

    Authors: Beate Krieger, Christina Schulze, Jillian Boyd, Ruth Amann, Barbara Piškur, Anna Beurskens, Rachel Teplicky and Albine Moser

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:492

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body mass index category, as well as of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the participation in organized physical activity (OPA) of schoolchi...

    Authors: Vilelmine Carayanni, Elpis Vlachopadopoulou, Dimitra Koutsouki, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Theodora Psaltopoulou, YannisManios, Feneli Karachaliou, Angelos Hatzakis and Stefanos Michalacos

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:491

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The monoclonal antibody, palivizumab is licensed for use in high-risk infants to prevent severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The level of its use and compliance with current jurisdictio...

    Authors: Ruomei Xu, Parveen Fathima, Tobias Strunk, Nicholas de Klerk, Thomas L. Snelling, Peter C. Richmond, Anthony D. Keil and Hannah C. Moore

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:490

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Health-related quality of life (HQoL) indicators are considered valid measures of patient assessment in physical, mental and oral healthcare. This study aimed to examine the evidence on the relationship of ora...

    Authors: Ladan Fattah Moghaddam, Mario Vianna Vettore, Azadeh Bayani, Amir-Hossien Bayat, Elahe Ahounbar, Morteza Hemmat, Bahram Armoon and Yadolah Fakhri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:489

    Content type: Research article

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  28. There is no globally accepted definition for dosing error in adult or pediatric practice. The definition of pediatric dosing error varies greatly in the literature. The objective of this study was to develop a fr...

    Authors: Nadia Roumeliotis, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Paula Rochon, Anna Taddio and Chris Parshuram

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:488

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) have called for research into the role of biomarkers, and specifically procalcitonin (PCT), for the early diagnosis of serious bacterial infections ...

    Authors: Thomas Waterfield, Julie-Ann Maney, Mark D Lyttle, James P McKenna, Damian Roland, Michael Corr, Bethany Patenall, Michael D Shields, Kerry Woolfall and Derek Fairley

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:487

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The number of technology-dependent children (TDC) is increasing in South Korea, but available healthcare services after their discharge are poor. This study aimed to examine how TDC and caregivers live at home...

    Authors: Yu Hyeon Choi, Min Sun Kim, Cho Hee Kim, In Gyu Song, June Dong Park, Dong In Suh and Hyung-Ik Shin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:486

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infant thermal instability upon neonatal intensive care unit admission has been associated with respiratory morbidity; however, the association between ongoing thermal instability ...

    Authors: Jane L. Ralphe, Susan G. Silva, Robin B. Dail and Debra H. Brandon

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:485

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an idiopathic systemic vasculitis that predominantly damages coronary arteries in children. Various pathogens have been investigated as triggers for KD, but no definitive causative pat...

    Authors: Yuka Torii, Kazuhiro Horiba, Satoshi Hayano, Taichi Kato, Takako Suzuki, Jun-ichi Kawada, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Seiji Kojima, Yusuke Okuno, Tomoo Ogi and Yoshinori Ito

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:482

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Although gout is rare in children, chronic sustained hyperuricemia can lead to monosodium urate deposits progressing to gout, just as in adults. This study assessed prevalence and characteristics of gout and a...

    Authors: Shuichi Ito, Tomoko Torii, Akihiro Nakajima, Takeshi Iijima, Hiroshi Murano, Hideki Horiuchi, Hisashi Yamanaka and Masataka Honda

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:481

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a common cause of morbidity in the world. In 2017, 14.3 million cases of Typhoid and paratyphoid fever occurred globally. School age children...

    Authors: Bernie Endyarni Medise, Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko, Hartono Gunardi, Rini Sekartini, Hindra Irawan Satari, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Angga Wirahmadi, Mita Puspita, Rini Mulia Sari, Jae Seung Yang, Arijit Sil, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe and Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:480

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Little is known about physical development of children with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). This study aims to evaluate the anthropometric characteristics of children with CZS up to 12 months.

    Authors: Rita de Cássia Oliveira de Carvalho-Sauer, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Costa, Enny S. Paixão, Natanael de Jesus Silva, Florisneide Rodrigues Barreto and Maria Gloria Teixeira

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:479

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting the carnitine cycle and resulting in defective fatty acid oxidation. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficienc...

    Authors: Yiming Lin, Weihua Lin, Yanru Chen, Chunmei Lin, Zhenzhu Zheng, Jianlong Zhuang and Qingliu Fu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:478

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological problems among children. The aim of this survey was to assess the knowledge and attitude among preschool staff in Shanghai regarding epilepsy.

    Authors: Liyan Qiu, Lixiao Shen, Junli Wang, Fang Ren, Mingyu Xu, Fan Jiang, Xiaoyang Sheng, Fei Li and Feng Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:477

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Good oral health (OH) is essential for physical, social, mental health, and overall quality of life. This study assessed the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in changing oral health-related b...

    Authors: Mahmood Karimy, Peter Higgs, Shaghaygh Solayman Abadi, Bahram Armoon, Marzieh Araban, Mohammad Reza Rouhani and Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:476

    Content type: Research article

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  39. There is a great need in low- and middle- income countries for sound qualitative and monitoring tools assessing early childhood development outcomes. Although there are many instruments to measure the developm...

    Authors: Ying Li, Lei Tang, Yu Bai, Shuhang Zhao and Yaojiang Shi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:475

    Content type: Research article

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  40. During the first period of life, critically ill as well as healthy newborn infants experience recurrent painful procedures. Parents are a valuable but often overlooked resource in procedural pain management in...

    Authors: Emma Olsson, Martina Carlsen Misic, Randi Dovland Andersen, Jenny Ericson, Mats Eriksson, Ylva Thernström Blomqvist and Alexandra Ullsten

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:474

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. To evaluate the effects of interventions on children’s and adolescents’ overall physical activity (PA) for boys and girls separately and to appraise the extent to which the studies haven taken sex/gender into ...

    Authors: Carolin Schulze, Yolanda Demetriou, Sandra Emmerling, Annegret Schlund, Susan P. Phillips, Lorri Puil, Stephanie E. Coen and Anne K. Reimers

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:473

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The implications of congenital Zika Virus (ZIKV) infections for pediatric neurodevelopment and behavior remain inadequately studied. The aim of this study is to investigate patterns of neurodevelopment and beh...

    Authors: Paula Fabiana Sobral da Silva, Sophie Helena Eickmann, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Marilia de Carvalho Lima, Celina M. Turchi Martelli, Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Elizabeth B. Brickley, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Fabiana Cristina Lima da Silva Pastich Gonçalves, Maria Durce Costa Gomes Carvalho, Wayner Vieira de Souza and Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:472

    Content type: Research article

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  43. No consensus has been reached on capillary blood reference intervals for platelet parameters in full-term neonates. We aimed to establish neonatal capillary blood reference intervals for platelet parameters an...

    Authors: Dongyan Cui, Yan Hou, Ling Feng, Guo Li, Chi Zhang, Yanli Huang, Jiubo Fan and Qun Hu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:471

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Rosai- Dorfman Disease (RDD) is a benign condition of unknown aetiology which is characterized by non-neoplastic proliferation of histiocytes. Pathophysiology and natural history remain obscure due to the low ...

    Authors: Tharmini Danisious, Mathula Hettiarachchi, Chanuka Dharmadasa and Heshan Jayaweera

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:470

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  45. The hospital patient pathway for having treatment procedures can be daunting for younger patients and their family members, especially when they are about to undergo a complex intervention. Opportunities to me...

    Authors: Lisa Aufegger, Khánh Hà Bùi, Colin Bicknell and Ara Darzi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:469

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. With increased use of telehealth, interventions to improve infant sleep environments have not been explored. This study sought to assess the feasibility and efficacy of using electronic health record patient p...

    Authors: Ethan A. Canty, Benjamin N. Fogel, Erich K. Batra, Eric W. Schaefer, Jessica S. Beiler and Ian M. Paul

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:468

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:493

  47. Renal abscess in children is a rare and severe form of infectious kidney disease that is responsible for several serious complications. In this report, we describe a previously healthy 5-year-old girl with a r...

    Authors: Hiroki Kitaoka, Jun Inatomi, Hayato Chikai, Keiko Watanabe, Tadayuki Kumagai, Ayako Masui and Nobutaka Shimizu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:461

    Content type: Case report

    Published on: