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  1. Organ size is influenced by a number of factors. Age, height, weight, and ethnicity are known influencing factors. Pediatric populations have changed over time, puberty beginning earlier resulting in a changin...

    Authors: Stephan Waelti, Tim Fischer, Simon Wildermuth, Sebastian Leschka, Tobias Dietrich, Sabine Guesewell, Pascal Mueller, Michael Ditchfield and Stefan Markart

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:276

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Several factors like altitude, age, sex, pregnancy, socioeconomic status, life style and race influence hematological reference interval (RIs), which are critical to support clinical decisions and to interpret...

    Authors: Ammanuel Angelo, Girma Derbie, Asrat Demtse and Aster Tsegaye

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:275

    Content type: Research

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  3. Childhood obesity increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease marked by elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This study investigated the prevalence of increased ALT in children and adolescents ...

    Authors: Resthie R. Putri, Thomas Casswall and Emilia Hagman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:271

    Content type: Research

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  4. This study aimed to provide UK data describing the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) surgery in the neonatal population, including: pre-ligation management, and outcomes until discharge. We used Brit...

    Authors: A. Warnock, L. Szatkowski, A. Lakshmanan, L. Lee and W. Kelsall

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:270

    Content type: Research

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  5. Genome wide gene expression analysis has revealed hints for independent immunological pathways underlying the pathophysiologies of phlegmonous (PA) and gangrenous appendicitis (GA). Methods of artificial intel...

    Authors: Josephine Reismann, Natalie Kiss and Marc Reismann

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:268

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here we report the first case ...

    Authors: Mohammad Rubayet Hasan, Khaled Al Zubaidi, Karim Diab, Yahia Hejazi, Sharon Bout-Tabaku, Buthaina Al-Adba, Eman Al Maslamani, Mohammad Janahi, Diane Roscoe, Andres Perez Lopez and Patrick Tang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:267

    Content type: Research

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  7. Newborn morbidity and mortality are forecasted using the Apgar scores. Obstetricians worldwide have used the Apgar score for more than half a century for the assessment of immediate newborn conditions. It is a...

    Authors: Alex Yeshaneh, Andargachew Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes Kassa, Daniel Adane, Yohannes Fikadu, Semahegn Tilahun Wassie, Biresaw Wassihun Alemu, Mesfin Tadese, Solomon Shitu and Haimanot Abebe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:266

    Content type: Research

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  8. Spontaneous infection of preexisting solitary renal cysts has been documented in adults but is extremely rare in children. To date, no cases of simple renal cysts infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae have been ...

    Authors: Yoji Uejima, Hideki Niimi, Reiko Kato, Mihoko Furuichi, Satoshi Sato, Isao Kitajima, Yutaka Kawano, Tsutomu Oh-Ishi, Hiroshi Kawashima and Eisuke Suganuma

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:265

    Content type: Case report

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  9. There is no data on the number as well as the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the Fars province. Hence, we designed this study to analyze the latest data and the possible predictive factors on ...

    Authors: Ashkan Habib, Alireza Shojazadeh, Mohadeseh Molayemat, Asadollah Habib, Marjan Jeddi, Rita Arabsolghar, Mitra Nahas, Nazila Rahimi and Fariba Moradi Ardekani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:264

    Content type: Research

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  10. Girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to excess fetal adrenal androgens in-utero, and often born with masculinised genitalia. They are conventionally reared as females, but show...

    Authors: Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Umesh Jayarajah, Shamaali Gunawardana, Malik Samarasinghe and Shamya de Silva

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:262

    Content type: Research

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  11. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) affects as many as 100,000 infants each year in China. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces HIE related mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. Nation...

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Peng Zhang, Wenhao Zhou, Shiwen Xia, Wei Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhou, Xiuyong Cheng, Yuan Shi, Zhenlang Lin, Dongli Song and Guoqiang Cheng

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:261

    Content type: Research article

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  12. For evidence-based decision making, primary care physicians need to have specific and reliable information on the pre-test probabilities of underlying diseases and a symptom’s course. We performed a systematic...

    Authors: Milena Bergmann, Jörg Haasenritter, Dominik Beidatsch, Sonja Schwarm, Kaja Hörner, Stefan Bösner, Paula Grevenrath, Laura Schmidt, Annika Viniol, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff and Annette Becker

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:260

    Content type: Research

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  13. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causing jaundice is common in East Asian population. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase isoenzyme (UGT1A1) glucuronidates bilirubin and converts the toxic form of bilirubin...

    Authors: Hui Yang, Fen Lin, Zi-kai Chen, Lin Zhang, Jia-Xin Xu, Yong-Hao Wu, Jing-Ying Gu, Yu-Bin Ma, Jian-Dong Li and Li-Ye Yang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:259

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal symptoms are common presenting features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and can overlap with infectious or inflammatory abdominal conditions, ...

    Authors: Michelle Hwang, Kelsey Wilson, Lisa Wendt, Joshua Pohlman, Emily Densmore, Caitlin Kaeppler, Kyle Van Arendonk and Sarah Yale

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:258

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a heterogeneous group of chronic encephalopathies characterized by epilepsy with comorbid intellectual disability that are frequently associated with de ...

    Authors: Qingyun Kang, Liming Yang, Hongmei Liao, Sai Yang, Xiaojun Kuang, Zeshu Ning, Caishi Liao and Bo Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:256

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Interstitial deletions of chromosome band 10q11-q22 was a genomic disorder distinguished by developmental delay, congenital cleft palate and muscular hypotonia. The phenotypes involved were heterogeneous, hing...

    Authors: Dalin Fu, Weisheng Lin, Fen Lu, Senjie Du, Min Zhu, Xiaoke Zhao, Jian Tang, Chuan Chen, Xiaoli Chui, Shanmei Tang, Kai Wang, Chuanchun Yang and Bei Han

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:254

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in RAB27A gene. It is primarily characterized by a combination of partial albinism, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HL...

    Authors: Qing Zhang, Yun-Ze Zhao, Hong-Hao Ma, Dong Wang, Nan Zhang, Zhi-Gang Li and Rui Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:253

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of opioids to treat pain disorders have been previously reported in the emergency department (ED). Further research is needed to better evaluate the impact race/ethnicity m...

    Authors: Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Candice Donaldson, Michelle Fortier, Brooke Jenkins, Erik Linstead and Zeev Kain

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:252

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Authors: Patricio Solis-Urra, Jorge Olivares-Arancibia, Ernesto Suarez-Cadenas, Javier Sanchez-Martinez, Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Francisco B. Ortega, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Jose Castro-Piñero, Alejandro Veloz, Steren Chabert, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Juan Pablo Zavala-Crichton, Jairo H. Migueles, Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Milton Quiroz-Escobar…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:251

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:260

  20. Pediatric obesity is one of the most important health challenges of the twenty-first century. Primary prevention of childhood obesity, can lessen its consequences. This study aims to assess childhood obesity p...

    Authors: Shahnaz Taghizadeh, Rahim Khodayari-Zarnaq and Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:250

    Content type: Research

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  21. Scabies is a neglected tropical disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows under the skin. It is a major health problem in tropical areas, largely affecting children. Scabies is common and highly c...

    Authors: Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Mehdi Zare and Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:249

    Content type: Research

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  22. Rickets is not an unusual diagnosis for pediatricians even currently in developed countries. Children typically present with leg bowing, enlargement of wrists, rachitic rosary (swelling of costochondral juncti...

    Authors: Patricia Diaz Escagedo, Melissa Fiscaletti, Patricia Olivier, Chloé Hudon, Valancy Miranda, Marie-Claude Miron, Philippe M. Campeau and Nathalie Alos

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:248

    Content type: Case report

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  23. The idea of the ‘30 million word gap’ suggests families from more socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds engage in more verbal interactions with their child than disadvantaged families. Initial findings from...

    Authors: Mary E. Brushe, John Lynch, Sheena Reilly, Edward Melhuish, Murthy N. Mittinty and Sally A. Brinkman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Childhood obesity represents a global public health crisis: the number of obese children and adolescents (aged 5–19 years) worldwide has risen tenfold in the past four decades. The vast majority of overweight ...

    Authors: C. Homs, P. Berruezo, G. Según, L. Estrada, J. de Bont, J. Riera-Romaní, E. Carrillo-Álvarez, H. Schröder, R. Milà and S. F. Gómez

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:246

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Overweight can be a precursor of poor motor execution, negatively impacting the overall development of school-aged children on various levels. This study determined the long-term influences of overweight on pe...

    Authors: Elna de Waal and Anita Elizabeth Pienaar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:245

    Content type: Research article

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  26. To evaluate the impact of compliance on the therapeutic effects of Desmopressin, as well as the importance of establishing the voiding school for low-compliance children in primary monosymptomatic enuresis tre...

    Authors: Zoran Radojicic, Sasa Milivojevic, Irena Koricanac, Jelena Milin Lazovic, Darko Laketic, Ognjen Radojicic and Natasa Milic

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research article

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  27. There are few non-invasive monitoring methods that can reliably predict fluid responsiveness (FR) in children. Here, we interrogate the value of doppler ultrasound evaluation of passive leg raising (PLR)-induc...

    Authors: Deqiang Luo, Wei Dai, Lei Lei and Xueying Cai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:243

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Spinal arteriovenous malformations in children are extremely rare and pose great risk for intraoperative hemorrhage. Congenital syphilis sometimes presents with vascular symptoms, however, there is little publ...

    Authors: Mia J. Bertoli, Kruti Parikh, David Klyde, Catherine A. Mazzola and Shridevi Pandya Shah

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:242

    Content type: Case report

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  29. To establish reference intervals for hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in an ethnically diverse community sample of Canadian children 36 months and younger.

    Authors: Jemila S. Hamid, Eshetu G. Atenafu, Cornelia M. Borkhoff, Catherine S. Birken, Jonathon L. Maguire, Mary Kathryn Bohn, Khosrow Adeli, Mohamed Abdelhaleem and Patricia C. Parkin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The number of children diagnosed with developmental disabilities (DDs) or other chronic difficulties has risen. However, each professional’s awareness of children with developmental, emotional and behavioural ...

    Authors: Ayako Ide-Okochi, Hiromi Funayama and Yoshinobu Asada

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Suboptimal child nutrition remains the main factor underlying child undernutrition in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of minimum acceptable diet and associated fac...

    Authors: Richard Mbusa Kambale, Gaylord Amani Ngaboyeka, Joe Bwija Kasengi, Sarah Niyitegeka, Boss Rutakaza Cinkenye, Armand Baruti, Kizito Chentwali Mutuga and Dimitri Van der Linden

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Fever is a common symptom in children presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). We aimed to describe the epidemiology of systemic viral infections and their predictive values for excluding serious bacterial...

    Authors: Christina A. Rostad, Neena Kanwar, Jumi Yi, Claudia R. Morris, Jennifer Dien Bard, Amy Leber, James Dunn, Kimberle C. Chapin, Anne J. Blaschke, Judy A. Daly, Leslie A. Hueschen, Matthew Jones, Elizabeth Ott, Jeffrey Bastar, Kevin M. Bourzac and Rangaraj Selvarangan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:238

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is a common form of neonatal jaundice. Histopathological examination of the liver in patients with NICCD typically shows fatty liver, steat...

    Authors: Ryosuke Miyamoto, Jun Sada, Koki Ota, Kenitiro Kaneko, Hironori Kusano, Yoshiteru Azuma and Akihisa Okumura

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:237

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of death in infants, is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. While early diagnosis of SM...

    Authors: Mary Curry, Rosángel Cruz, Lisa Belter, Mary Schroth, Megan Lenz and Jill Jarecki

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:236

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) infants present an increased incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD), but it is unknown which factors contribute to this. The aim of this study was to determine the risk fact...

    Authors: Wenwen Chen, Zhenhai Zhang, Shuzhen Dai and Liping Xu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The increased incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors has become a public health issue, especially in childhood and adolescence. Thus, early identification is essential to avoid or reduce future complication...

    Authors: Ana Paula Sehn, Caroline Brand, Letícia Welser, Anelise Reis Gaya, Cesar Agostinis-Sobrinho, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Elza Daniel de Mello and Cézane Priscila Reuter

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  37. This study aims to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and illicit drug use among Dutch adolescents admitted to hospital for acute alcohol intoxication treatment. Furthermore, socio-demographic predict...

    Authors: Loes de Veld, Inge M. Wolberink, Joris J. van Hoof and Nico van der Lely

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:233

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Studies suggest that exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy may be associated with increased risks of birth defects (BDs), but conclusions have been inconsistent. This study describes the ethnic di...

    Authors: Xiaoli Huang, Jichang Chen, Dingyuan Zeng, Zhong Lin, Carly Herbert, Lesley Cottrell, Liu Liu, Arlene Ash and Bo Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:232

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in governments implementing disease containment measures such as school closures, social distancing, and home quarantine.

    Authors: G. Segre, R. Campi, F. Scarpellini, A. Clavenna, M. Zanetti, M. Cartabia and M. Bonati

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:231

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Alemtuzumab is a T cell depleting antibody agent used as induction immunosuppressant therapy in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, it is being increasingly used to treat severe or glucocorticoid-r...

    Authors: Nori J. L. Smeets, Ruud J. R. Eijk, Saskia N. de Wildt and Charlotte M. H. H. T. Bootsma-Robroeks

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:229

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Children’s voices are seldom heard in process evaluations concerning health promotion programmes. A Healthy School Start Plus (HSSP) is a parental support programme, conducted in Sweden, with the aim of promot...

    Authors: Mahnoush Etminan Malek, Gisela Nyberg, Liselotte Schäfer Elinder, Emma Patterson and Åsa Norman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:228

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Diarrhea among children under five is one of the significant public health concerns in developing countries, such as Ethiopia that is mainly attributed to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) servic...

    Authors: Weldehawariyat Getahun and Metadel Adane

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:227

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Immunization is essential to prevent between 2 and 3 million deaths globally each year and it is widely accepted that it is one of the most cost-effective health interventions. Despite all its advantages, immu...

    Authors: Admassu Ketsela, Seifu Hagos Gebreyesus and Wakgari Deressa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Physical growth during childhood and adolescence is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Heritability, the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genetic factors, has been demonstrated...

    Authors: Avivit Brener, Yarden Waksman, Talya Rosenfeld, Sigal Levy, Itai Peleg, Adi Raviv, Hagar Interator and Yael Lebenthal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Neonatal encephalopathy due to acute perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of perinatal brain damage. Moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, th...

    Authors: Yoshinori Aoki, Tatsuo Kono, Mikako Enokizono and Kaoru Okazaki

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research article

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