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  1. Infectious morbidity and mortality in the first week of life is commonly caused by early-onset neonatal Group B streptococcus (GBS) disease. This infection is spread from GBS positive mothers to neonates by ve...

    Authors: Justin Kirven, David Beddow, Love Patel, Claire Smith, Katherine S. Booker, Barite Dawud and Catherine A. St. Hill

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:327

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Authors: Samir Gupta, Edmund Juszczak, Pollyanna Hardy, Nimish Subhedar, Jonathan Wyllie, Wilf Kelsall, Sunil Sinha, Sam Johnson, Tracy Roberts, Elisabeth Hutchison, Justine Pepperell, Louise Linsell, Jennifer L. Bell, Kayleigh Stanbury, Marketa Laube, Clare Edwards…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:326

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:100

  3. Perinatal asphyxia is one of the main causes of preterm infant mortality. Some studies have shown that The Urinary Uric Acid / Cr (UUA/Cr) ratio may be used as an additional marker for perinatal asphyxia.This ...

    Authors: Mansour Sadeghzadeh, Parisa Khoshnevisasl, Ramezan Fallah, Asghar Marzban and Seyyedeh Maryam Mirrajei

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:325

    Content type: Research

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  4. Sleep habits are an important component of a child’s health and it is affected by parent–child relationship. Also, child’s diet and nutrition appear to be an important factor affecting sleep health. Few studie...

    Authors: Elsa Sfeir, Chadia Haddad, Marwan Akel, Souheil Hallit and Sahar Obeid

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research

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  5. Optimal protein level in hypoallergenic infant formulas is an area of ongoing investigation. The aim was to evaluate growth of healthy term infants who received extensively hydrolyzed (EH) or amino acid (AA)-b...

    Authors: Craig B. Adams, William H. Johnston, Harold Deulofeut, Joseph Leader, Robbie Rhodes, Michael Yeiser, Cheryl L. Harris, Jennifer L. Wampler, Rebecca J. Hill and Timothy Cooper

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:323

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Recent decreases in neonatal mortality have been slower than expected for most countries. This study aims to predict the risk of neonatal mortality using only data routinely available from birth records in the...

    Authors: André F. M. Batista, Carmen S. G. Diniz, Eliana A. Bonilha, Ichiro Kawachi and Alexandre D. P. Chiavegatto Filho

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:322

    Content type: Research

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  7. Assessment of spleen size is an important part of the clinical skills of medical students and physicians. Many diseases can affect the size of the aforementioned organ, ranging from infective processes to mali...

    Authors: Binalfew Tsehay, Dessalegn Shitie, Abebe Afenigus and Mustofa Essa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research

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  8. Biliary atresia (BA) is a severe cholangiopathy possibly resulting from virus-induced and immune-mediated injury of the biliary system. IFN-γ, secreted from CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, is a major m...

    Authors: Xuangjie Guo, Yiping Xu, Wei Luo, Rongli Fang, Li Cai, Ping Wang, Yuxia Zhang, Zhe Wen and Yanhui Xu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:317

    Content type: Research

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  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among adolescents and adults. Given the importance of healthy nutritional behaviors in management of this disease, the present study was conducte...

    Authors: Leila Hajivandi, Mahnaz Noroozi, Firoozeh Mostafavi and Maryam Ekramzadeh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:316

    Content type: Research article

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  10. HIV testing and treatment guidelines for children in sub-Saharan Africa have evolved over time, such that children are now treated at younger ages. The objective of this study was to describe the treatment exp...

    Authors: Jessica L. Schue, Janneke H. van Dijk, Francis Hamangaba, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Nkumbula Moyo, Philip E. Thuma, William J. Moss and Catherine G. Sutcliffe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research

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  11. Eczema is usually the first allergic manifestation to appear in life attributed to gene–environment interactions. IL13, IL4, MS4A2 and ILR4A are four key inflammatory genes associated with atopy. This study aimed...

    Authors: Li Hua, Qian Chen, Quan-Hua Liu, Yi-Feng Guo, Ru-Hong Cheng, Jun Zhang, Jian-Hua Zhang, Li-Wei Wang and Ruo-Xu Ji

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:314

    Content type: Research

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  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures of cerebral saturation (Csat) and renal saturation (Rsat) in extreme premature newborns may be affected by systemic blood flow fluctuations. Despite increasing clinic...

    Authors: Gabriel Altit, Shazia Bhombal and Valerie Y. Chock

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research

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  13. Little is known about the factors associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of breastfeeding for at least 2 years. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for and prot...

    Authors: Graciete Oliveira Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira Vieira, Camilla da Cruz Martins, Michelle de Santana Xavier Ramos and Elsa Regina Justo Giugliani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:310

    Content type: Research

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  14. When evaluating speech in children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CP/L), children with known syndromes and/or additional malformations (CP/L+) are usually excluded. The aim of this study was to p...

    Authors: Kristina Klintö, Maria Sporre and Magnus Becker

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:309

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Less than 2% of overweight children and adolescents in Switzerland can participate in multi-component behaviour changing interventions (BCI), due to costs and lack of time. Stress often hinders positive health...

    Authors: A. Stasinaki, D. Büchter, C.-H. I. Shih, K. Heldt, S. Güsewell, B. Brogle, N. Farpour-Lambert, T. Kowatsch and D. l’Allemand

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research

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  16. Around two and half million neonatal mortality occurred in 2017, especially in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the determinants of neonatal mortality among newborns admitted in the ...

    Authors: Atnafu Adem, Azmach Dache and Aregahegn Dona

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:307

    Content type: Research

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  17. Perinatal asphyxia is a complicated newborn health problem and applies a high contribution to the increased proportion of newborn mortality. It occurs in newborns due to altered breathing or inadequate inhalat...

    Authors: Samuel Dessu, Zinabu Dawit, Abebe Timerga and Muluken Bafa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research

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  18. European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism released the guidelines on pediatric parenteral nutrition in 2018. We aimed to compare the parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen with the current guidelines, ...

    Authors: Nan Wang, Lianlian Cui, Zhen Liu, Yan Wang, Yuhua Zhang, Changsong Shi and Yanbo Cheng

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:303

    Content type: Research

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  19. The current neonatal mortality rate in Nigeria (37/1000) is among the highest in the world and the major causes have consistently been reported as sepsis, perinatal asphyxia and prematurity. However, case-spec...

    Authors: L. I. Audu, A. T. Otuneye, A. B. Mairami, M. Mukhtar-Yola and L. J. Mshelia

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:302

    Content type: Research

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  20. The most common cause of respiratory failure in premature infants is respiratory distress syndrome. Historically, respiratory distress syndrome has been treated by intratracheal surfactant injection followed b...

    Authors: Arash Malakian, Mohammad Reza Aramesh, Mina Agahin and Masoud Dehdashtian

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:301

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and sleep disturbances have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of vitamin A (VA) levels on sleep regulation and sleep disturbances in ASD ha...

    Authors: Jing Wen, Ting Yang, Jiang Zhu, Min Guo, Xi Lai, Ting Tang, Li Chen, Jie Chen, Ming Xue and Tingyu Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:299

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy and childhood obesity is increasing worldwide. Factors affecting the growth of children with overweight whose mothers had DM are complicated and inconc...

    Authors: Yuan-Der Huang, Yun-Ru Luo, Meng-Chih Lee and Chih-Jung Yeh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:298

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by a higher bone density in bone marrow caused by the dysfunction of bone resorption. Clinically, IMO can be diagnose...

    Authors: Ping Wu, Zhe Cai, Wen-Hui Jiang, Gen Lu, Pei-Qiong Wu, Zhi-Wei Xie, Jun-Zheng Peng, Chen Chen, Jun-Ye Qi, Li-Zhen Xu, Kun-Ling Shen, Hua-Song Zeng and Gen-Quan Yin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:297

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Newborn screening (NBS) for sickle cell disease incidentally identifies heterozygous carriers of hemoglobinopathy mutations. In Ontario, Canada, these carrier results are not routinely disclosed, presenting an...

    Authors: Sara D. Khangura, Beth K. Potter, Christine Davies, Robin Ducharme, A. Brianne Bota, Steven Hawken, Kumanan Wilson, Maria D. Karaceper, Robert J. Klaassen, Julian Little, Ewurabena Simpson and Pranesh Chakraborty

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:296

    Content type: Research

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  25. Migraine is common in childhood, peaks in adolescents and persists into adulthood in at least 40% of patients. There is need for early interventions to improve the burden of disease and, if possible, reduce ch...

    Authors: Mirjam N. Landgraf, Florian Heinen, Lucia Gerstl, Christine Kainz, Ruth Ruscheweyh, Andreas Straube, Joerg Scheidt, Sabine von Mutius, Viola Obermeier and Ruediger von Kries

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:294

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. The spondylodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos subtype (OMIM #130070) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by a combination of connective tissue symptoms, skeletal features and short stature. It is caused by ...

    Authors: Delia Lorenz, Wolfram Kress, Ann-Kathrin Zaum, Christian P. Speer and Helge Hebestreit

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:293

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Midregional-proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a useful prognostic peptide in severe infectious pathologies in the adult population. However, there are no studies that analyze its utility in febrile urinary trac...

    Authors: Rafael Peñalver Penedo, Marta Rupérez Lucas, Luis Antonio Álvarez-Sala Walther, Alicia Torregrosa Benavent, María Luisa Casas Losada, Luis Bañuelos Andrio, Ana Belén Rebolledo Poves and Mercedes Bueno Campaña

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:292

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a common inherited red blood cell membrane disorder characterized by an abnormal increase of spherocytes in peripheral blood. SPTB gene mutation is one of the most common causes o...

    Authors: Zhanhui Du, Gang Luo, Kuiliang Wang, Zhen Bing and Silin Pan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:291

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. Diarrheal disease is still one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Lack of specific data on the prevalence of acute diarrhea...

    Authors: Tarikuwa Natnael, Mistir Lingerew and Metadel Adane

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:290

    Content type: Research

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  30. The Lebanese population has undergone several conflicts and were the most afflicted by shelling and chaos during the civil war from 1975 to 1990, or even by displacement, bereavement, emigration, family separa...

    Authors: Georges Merhy, Vanessa Azzi, Pascale Salameh, Sahar Obeid and Souheil Hallit

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:288

    Content type: Research

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  31. A predictive model for risk of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP)-related hepatitis in MP pneumonia pediatric patients can improve treatment selection and therapeutic effect. However, currently, no predictive model is av...

    Authors: Yuna Bi, Yan Ma, Jinhua Zhuo, Lili Zhang, Liyan Yin, Hongling Sheng, Jie Luan and Tao Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:287

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common complication in very preterm infants. It is known that there is an association between PDA and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death before the pos...

    Authors: Solomiia Potsiurko, Dmytro Dobryanskyy and Lesya Sekretar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:286

    Content type: Research

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  33. Children who are high priority candidates for early intervention need to be identified to reduce their risk for experiencing problems in development. Those exposed to multiple risk factors are more likely to e...

    Authors: Jan L. Wallander, Sarah Berry, Polly Atatoa Carr, Elizabeth R. Peterson, Karen E. Waldie, Emma Marks, Stephanie D’Souza and Susan M. B. Morton

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:285

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. Unfortunately, there are limited multi-center data on common viral respiratory infections in sou...

    Authors: Yajie Zhang, Lin Qiao, Jinxiu Yao, Nan Yu, Xiaoping Mu, Shengqi Huang, Bo Hu, Weixuan Li, Feng Qiu, Fangyin Zeng, Cong Chen, Yuqiu Zhou, Bashan Zhang, Tian Cai, Weijia Wang, Xianjin Wu…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:284

    Content type: Research

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  35. Hereditary cancer susceptibility syndrome (HCSS) contributes to the cancer predisposition at an early age, therefore, identification of HCSS has found to be crucial for surveillance, managing therapeutic inter...

    Authors: Sara Aslam, Shabana and Mehboob Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research

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  36. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is a common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in premature newborns. In this study, we aim to compare the reintubation rate in preterm babies with RDS who were extub...

    Authors: Alaa Masry, Nuha A. M. A. Nimeri, Olfa Koobar, Samer Hammoudeh, Prem Chandra, Einas E. Elmalik, Amr M. Khalil, Nasir Mohammed, Nazla A. M. Mahmoud, Lisa J. Langtree and Mohammad A. A. Bayoumi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:281

    Content type: Research

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  37. Evidence for periconceptional or prenatal environmental risk factors for the development of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is still scarce. Here, in a case-control study we investigated potential enviro...

    Authors: Felicitas Schulz, Ekkehart Jenetzky, Nadine Zwink, Charlotte Bendixen, Florian Kipfmueller, Neysan Rafat, Andreas Heydweiller, Lucas Wessel, Heiko Reutter, Andreas Mueller and Thomas Schaible

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:278

    Content type: Research

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  38. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) continues to be a major contributor to infant mortality in the United States. The objective was to analyze time trends in SUID and their association with immunization cove...

    Authors: Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Konrad Neumann, Thomas Keil, Stefan N. Willich and Sylvia Binting

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:274

    Content type: Research

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