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  1. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis with or without fibrosis. The predictors for liver fibrosis and the effect of nutritional intervention on hepatic fi...

    Authors: Hadar Moran-Lev, Shlomi Cohen, Muriel Webb, Anat Yerushalmy-Feler, Achiya Amir, Dana L. Gal and Ronit Lubetzky

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:385

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The Raynaud-Claes type of X-linked syndromic mental retardation (MRXSRC) is a very rare condition, by intellectual disability ranged from borderline to profound, impaired language development, brain abnormalit...

    Authors: Xin Xu, Fen Lu, Li Zhang, Hongying Li, Senjie Du and Jian Tang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:384

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Jaundice is common among neonates and if untreated can lead to kernicterus. Diagnosing neonatal jaundice (NJ) using Kramer’s method (visual assessment) is considered user-friendly in resource-limited areas. Ho...

    Authors: Ikunda Dionis, Omary Chillo, George M. Bwire, Calvin Ulomi, Manase Kilonzi and Emmanuel Balandya

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:383

    Content type: Research

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  4. Modifiable lifestyle factors and body composition can affect the attainment of peak bone mass during childhood. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of bone health among pre-adol...

    Authors: Chung Yuan Chang, Kanimolli Arasu, Soon Yee Wong, Shu Hwa Ong, Wai Yew Yang, Megan Hueh Zan Chong, Meenal Mavinkurve, Erwin Jiayuan Khoo, Karuthan Chinna, Connie Marie Weaver and Winnie Siew Swee Chee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research article

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  5. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify adverse childhood experience (ACE) subtypes using variable- and person-centered approaches and examine the possible sex-differentiated associations with violence in...

    Authors: Xiayun Zuo, Ziwei Zhang, Li Yan, Qiguo Lian, Chunyan Yu, Xiaowen Tu and Chaohua Lou

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:381

    Content type: Research

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  6. A significant number of patients with KS have cleft palate (CP) or submucous cleft palate (SMCP) and show delayed speech development. However, few reports have discussed the characteristics of CP in KS and the...

    Authors: Jong-Ho Kim, Jiwon Kang, Joon Seok Oh, Taeseon Ahn, Baek-kyu Kim and Rong-Min Baek

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research

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  7. Many international medical organizations recommend vitamin D supplementation for infants, especially exclusively breastfed infants. In Thailand, however, data regarding the vitamin D status in Thai infants are...

    Authors: Chayatat Ruangkit, Sukrit Suwannachat, Pornchanok Wantanakorn, Napapailin Sethaphanich, Surapat Assawawiroonhakarn and Oraporn Dumrongwongsiri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:378

    Content type: Research

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  8. Different surgical techniques and management approaches have been introduced to manage the cleft palate (CP) and its complications, such as otitis media with effusion (OME) and auditory problems. The optimal m...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Hoghoughi, Tayebeh Kazemi, Ali Khojasteh, Raha Habibagahi, Zahra Kalkate, Zeynab Zarei, Hamidreza Hosseinpour and Maryam Salimi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:377

    Content type: Research

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  9. Research has highlighted the need for evidence-based interventions to improve paediatric advance care planning (pACP) in adolescents with cancer. Although adolescents express the desire and ability to share th...

    Authors: Anne van Driessche, Aline De Vleminck, Joni Gilissen, Marijke C. Kars, Jutte van der Werff ten Bosch, Luc Deliens, Joachim Cohen and Kim Beernaert

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:376

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. In otitis media with effusion (OME), it is important to know when to surgically intervene and when careful monitoring is more appropriate. This study aimed to visualize and classify the clinical manifestations...

    Authors: Chan Il Song, Byung Chul Kang, Chol Ho Shin, Yun Suk An, Tae Su Kim, Hyun Woo Lim, Hyun Joon Shim, Myung Hoon Yoo and Joong Ho Ahn

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:375

    Content type: Research

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  11. Overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities are a pressing global issue among children of all ages, particularly among low-income populations. Rapid weight gain (RWG) in the first 6 months of infancy con...

    Authors: Megan E. Petrov, Nana Jiao, Sarada S. Panchanathan, Elizabeth Reifsnider, Dean V. Coonrod, Li Liu, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Haiwei Gu, Laurie A. Davidson, Robert S. Chapkin and Corrie M. Whisner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:374

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Adverse metabolic outcomes later in life have been reported among children or young adults who were born as preterm infants. This study was conducted to examine the impact of very preterm/very low birth weight...

    Authors: Jungha Yun, Young Hwa Jung, Seung Han Shin, In Gyu Song, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim and Han-Suk Kim

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:373

    Content type: Research

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  13. Hydatid disease is an endemic disease in many countries of the world including the Middle East. It mainly affects the liver and lungs. Intramuscular hydatid disease is rarely reported in children. Such uncommo...

    Authors: Ruba A. Khasawneh, Ziyad M. Mohaidat, Rawand A. Khasawneh, Sohaib B. Zoghoul and Yousef M. Henawi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:371

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Children with physical disabilities (PD) are less physically active than typically developing peers. The most important contributor to physical activity for primary school-aged children is outside play and the...

    Authors: L. van Engelen, M. Ebbers, M. Boonzaaijer, E. A. M. Bolster, E. A. H. van der Put and M. A. T. Bloemen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:369

    Content type: Research

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  15. Gabapentin is often used to manage pain in children with dystonic cerebral palsy, however the evidence for its effectiveness in this population is limited. The primary objective of this feasibility pilot study...

    Authors: Adrienne Harvey, Mary-Clare Waugh, James Rice, Giuliana Antolovich, Lisa Copeland, Francesca Orsini, Adam Scheinberg, Clare McKinnon, Megan Thorley, Felicity Baker, George Chalkiadis and Kirsty Stewart

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:368

    Content type: Research

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  16. The onset of walking is thought to be an indicator of early development. However, evidence is mixed and clear data on this relationship at preschool age is missing. The study aimed at investigating if walking ...

    Authors: Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Tanja H. Kakebeeke, Andrea H. Meyer, Amar Arhab, Annina E. Zysset, Kerstin Stülb, Claudia S. Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A. Schmutz, Susi Kriemler, Jardena J. Puder, Simone Munsch and Oskar G. Jenni

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:367

    Content type: Research

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  17. India lacks epidemiological information on the disease burden of pediatric HIV. The National AIDS Control Program (NACP) estimates the numbers of HIV-positive children as a proportion of adult persons living w...

    Authors: Anju Sinha, Reynold Washington, Rajeev Sethumadhavan, Rajaram Subramanian Potty, Shajy Isac, Vasantha Thavraj and Ravindra Mohan Pandey

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:366

    Content type: Research

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  18. Cortisol is a steroid hormone acting as a stress hormone, which is crucial in regulating homeostasis. Previous studies have linked cortisol concentration to body mass and body composition.

    Authors: Paulina Pruszkowska-Przybylska, Aneta Sitek, Iwona Rosset, Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Marcin Słomka, Dominik Strapagiel, Elżbieta Żądzińska and Niels Morling

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:365

    Content type: Research

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  19. Healthcare organizations are increasingly screening and addressing food insecurity (FI); yet, limited data exists from clinic-based settings on how FI rates change over time. The objective of this study was to...

    Authors: Kimberly Montez, Callie L. Brown, Arvin Garg, Scott D. Rhodes, Eunyoung Y. Song, Alysha J. Taxter, Joseph A. Skelton, Laurie W. Albertini and Deepak Palakshappa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research

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  20. Tinea capitis is a common cutaneous infection of the scalp and hair follicles, typically diagnosed by direct examination and culture. Treatment with oral antifungals is usually withheld until mycology results ...

    Authors: Riad Kassem, Yahel Shemesh, Orna Nitzan, Maya Azrad and Avi Peretz

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:363

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The association between a slower physical growth and poorer neurodevelopment has been established in infants born preterm or small for gestational age. However, this association is inconsistent in term-born in...

    Authors: Masafumi Sanefuji, Yuri Sonoda, Yoshiya Ito, Masanobu Ogawa, Vlad Tocan, Hirosuke Inoue, Masayuki Ochiai, Masayuki Shimono, Reiko Suga, Ayako Senju, Satoshi Honjo, Koichi Kusuhara and Shouichi Ohga

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:360

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Back pain in childhood and adolescence increases the risk for back pain in adulthood, but validated assessment tools are scarce. The aim of this study was to validate the Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) in a G...

    Authors: Luana Nyirö, Tobias Potthoff, Mette Hobaek Siegenthaler, Fabienne Riner, Petra Schweinhardt and Brigitte Wirth

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research

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  23. Spinal cord compression (SCC) is an uncommon, severe complication of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), occurring in 0.2% of cases at the onset and in 6% during disease progression. We present a teenager with SCC with cli...

    Authors: Giulia Salomone, Milena La Spina, Giuseppe Belfiore, Gregoria Bertuna, Laura Cannavò, Stefano Catanzaro, Salvatore D’Amico, Mariaclaudia Meli, Andrea Musumeci, Lucia Salvatorelli, Maria Grazia Scuderi, Corrado Spatola, Mariella Valenzise, Andrea Di Cataldo and Giovanna Russo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:358

    Content type: Case report

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  24. The early life period represents the first step in establishing a beneficial microbial ecosystem, which in turn affects both short and longer-term health. Changes during pregnancy influence the neonatal microb...

    Authors: Sarah Phillips, Rachel Watt, Thomas Atkinson, George M Savva, Antonietta Hayhoe and Lindsay J Hall

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:357

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a significant neurodevelopment disorder among children and adolescents, with 5 % prevalence. Bone fractures account for 25 % of accidents and injuries among a...

    Authors: Hoda Seens, Shirin Modarresi, Joy C MacDermid, David M Walton and Ruby Grewal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:354

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Salmonella infection presents itself in a wide variety of ways, ranging from mild self-limited illness to severe systemic disease with multiorgan involvement. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a very rare complication t...

    Authors: Salwa Al Kaabi, Aysha Al Kaabi and Hasa Al Nuaimi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:353

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Although previous studies have shown the relationship between different parental factors and children’s blood pressure status, there is limited data on the cumulative effect of these factors. Considering paren...

    Authors: Parisa Amiri, Marjan Rezaei, Sara Jalali-Farahani, Mehrdad Karimi, Leila Cheraghi, Romina Esbati and Fereidoun Azizi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:352

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Asthma is an important public health disease affecting children that may result in school absenteeism and hospitalization. This study aims to assess the validity, reliability, and diagnostic accuracy of the Tu...

    Authors: Mahmut Kilic, Ghaniya Ede and Tugba Uzuncakmak

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:348

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with impaired quality of life. We identified indoor environmental risk factors, to provide strong evidence for the prevention and control of eczema in presch...

    Authors: Haonan Shi, Guangsheng Wan, Tingting Wang, Jia Zhu, Lan Jiang, Shaowei Ma, Jian Yao, Zhe Yin, Murizhati Maimaiti and Huijuan Dong

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:347

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In Finland, school doctors examine all children at predetermined ages in addition to annual health checks by school nurses. This study explored the association of study questionnaire-assessed need for and scho...

    Authors: Kirsi Nikander, Elina Hermanson, Tero Vahlberg, Minna Kaila, Tuire Sannisto and Silja Kosola

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:346

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Hypothyroxinemia is defined by low levels of thyroxine (T4) despite low or normal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with transient hypothyroxinemi...

    Authors: Aslan Yilmaz, Yavuz Ozer, Nesrin Kaya, Hande Turan, Hazal Cansu Acar, Oya Ercan, Yildiz Perk, Olcay Evliyaoglu and Mehmet Vural

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:344

    Content type: Research

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  32. Vancomycin is commonly used as part of empiric antibiotic therapy in the preterm infants who develop signs and symptoms of infection. Although skin necrosis has been noted to occur following injection of vanco...

    Authors: Sixtine Gilliot, Mohamed Riadh Boukhris, Morgane Masse, Laurent Storme, Bertrand Décaudin, Pascal Odou and Kevin Le Duc

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:343

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  33. In the management of pediatric osteomyelitis or septic arthritis, delay in treatment may affect outcome, while receipt of antibiotics prior to culture may affect culture results. We aimed to determine if patho...

    Authors: Amanda Lansell, Yasasvi Vasili, Parminder S. Suchdev, Janet Figueroa and Anjali Kirpalani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research

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  34. Neonates and small infants with congenital cardiac disease undergoing cardiac surgery represent major challenges facing paediatric anaesthesia and perioperative medicine. Aims.

    Authors: Judith Schiefer, Paul Lichtenegger, Daniel Zimpfer, Doris Hutschala, Lorenz Kuessel, Alessia Felli, Stephan Hornykewycz, Peter Faybik and Eva Base

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:341

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The purpose was to determine the association between infant exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD) with neuropsychiatric problems in pre-school children.

    Authors: Ju Hee Kim, Sihyeong Park, Eun Kyo Ha, Dong Keon Yon, Seung Won Lee, Hyun Yong Koh and Man Yong Han

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:340

    Content type: Research

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  36. Perthes disease (Legg-Calvé-Perthes, LCP) is a self-limited and non-systemic disease occurring in the femoral heads of children, which is mainly manifested as an ischemic necrosis of the femoral head epiphysis...

    Authors: Guoming Chen, Tengyu Chen, Peng Zhang, Zhaoping Zhang, Ruilan Huang, Tao Chen, Wei He, Haibin Wang and Chi Zhou

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:339

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. In vitro studies have demonstrated cross-reactivity among indoor allergen proteins in children with allergic respiratory diseases. However, there are only few studies evaluating in vivo response. A skin prick tes...

    Authors: Prapasri Kulalert, Paskorn Sritipsukho, Sira Nanthapisal and Orapan Poachanukoon

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:338

    Content type: Research

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  38. Preoperative anxiety is a common problem in the paediatric population, and several studies have reported that it is related to adverse events such as emergence delirium and postoperative psychological and beha...

    Authors: Bo Li, Huiyan Hou, Jie Bai, Mazhong Zhang, Shengde Li and Jijian Zheng

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:336

    Content type: Research

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  39. Stress hyperglycemia (SH) is considered a transient manifestation and routine diagnostic evaluation was thought to be unnecessary due to the lack of definite correlation with diabetes mellitus (DM). Although S...

    Authors: Wei-De Wang, Chun-Hao Chu, Chiung-Hsi Tien, Shuo-Yu Wang, Shih-Yao Liu and Chien-Ming Lin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:335

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Vitamin D is an essential micronutrient for the overall health and well-being of individuals. For strong musculoskeletal and neurological development of human body, vitamin D levels during childhood and adoles...

    Authors: Akif Mustafa and Chander Shekhar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:334

    Content type: Research

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  41. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to be exquisitely adept at triggering autoimmunity and multiple new onset autoimmune diseases have been described as a post-infectious complication of COVID-19 infection in the adult ...

    Authors: Daniel D. Reiff, Chloe G. Meyer, Brittany Marlin and Melissa L. Mannion

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:333

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  42. Malnutrition is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity of children in low and middle income countries including Ethiopia and household wealth index shares the highest contribution. Thus, in this stud...

    Authors: Demeke Lakew Workie and Lijalem Melie Tesfaw

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:332

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which is caused by heterozygous inactivating pathogenic variants in the NF1, has poor phenotypic expressivity in the early years of life and there are numerous conditions, includin...

    Authors: Eva Pinti, Krisztina Nemeth, Krisztina Staub, Anna Lengyel, Gyorgy Fekete and Iren Haltrich

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research

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  44. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal serum vitamin D status in the first trimester of pregnancy and maternal as well as neonatal outcomes, considered the prevalence of vitamin D de...

    Authors: Meng Ni, Qianqian Zhang, Jiuru Zhao, Qianwen Shen, Dongting Yao, Tao Wang and Zhiwei Liu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:330

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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