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  1. Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in children is hindered by variable sensitivity of clinical criteria and rapid Strep A tests (SAT), resulting in reliance on throat cultures as the gold standa...

    Authors: Salama Bin Hendi, Zainab A. Malik, Amar Hassan Khamis and Fadil Y. A. Al-Najjar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is identified in numerous medical conditions associated with allergic, infectious, and inflammatory processes mostly as reactive eosinophilia with or without tissue eosinophilia. ...

    Authors: Cheong-Jun Moon, Tae Hee Kwon and Hyun-Seung Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:49

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Surviving children born at 23 gestational weeks are a growing population. As many of these children face developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, more knowledge is needed about the everyday l...

    Authors: Anniina Väliaho, Liisa Lehtonen, Anna Axelin and Riikka Korja

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Manitoba-oculo-tricho-anal (MOTA) syndrome is a rare syndrome with only 27 cases reported worldwide so far, but none was reported in the population of Eastern Asia. Such extremely low prevalence might be contr...

    Authors: Shuchen Gu, Yimin Khoong, Xin Huang and Tao Zan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:46

    Content type: Case report

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  5. KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase; OMIM: 190,070) encodes one of three small guanosine triphosphatase proteins belonging to the RAS family. This group of proteins is responsible for cell proliferation, differenti...

    Authors: Geraldine Blanchard-Rohner, Robert J. Ragotte, Anne K. Junker, Mehul Sharma, Kate L. Del Bel, Henry Y. Lu, Stephanie Erdle, Alanna Chomyn, Harinder Gill, Lori B. Tucker, Richard A. Schreiber, Jacob Rozmus, Catherine M. Biggs, Kyla J. Hildebrand, John Wu, Sylvia Stockler-Ipsiroglu…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:45

    Content type: Case report

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  6. The purpose of this study was to assess scan parameters and to propose strategies to optimize the examinations of children (from 0 to 15 years old) on adult scanners in developing countries.

    Authors: Fotso Eddy Kamdem, Samba Odette Ngano, Clemence Alla Takam, Alain Jervé Fotue, Serge Abogo and Cornellius Lukong Fai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:93

  7. Nutritional status is an important indicator for measuring quality of life in children. A region that is recovering from war will face many problems related to nutrition. Very few studies have addressed the nu...

    Authors: M. G. Sathiadas, Annieston Antonyraja, Arunath Viswalingam, Kasthuri Thangaraja and V. P. Wickramasinghe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:43

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Positional head deformity (PHD) is defined as a change in the shape of an infant’s skull due to an external force. In certain cases, it can lead to cosmetic deformities or even neurological issues due to its i...

    Authors: Wang Yang, Bin Hu, Jianping Chen, Wenzhi Shen, Chengju Wang, Qin Chang, Wenzao Li, Fuxiang Qu, Qiuming Pan and Yuping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Paediatric poisoning is a common presentation to emergency departments worldwide. There is a paucity of data on the role of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), in the management of paedi...

    Authors: Norbertta Washaya, Alicia Evans, Rudzani Muloiwa, Peter Smith and Heloise Buys

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterised by vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria.

    Authors: Visvalingam Arunath, Thabitha Jebaseeli Hoole, Asanka Rathnasri, Oshanie Muthukumarana, Ishara Minuri Kumarasiri, Nishadi Dananjani Liyanage, Yasintha Costa and Sachith Mettananda

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:41

    Content type: Case report

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  11. The last two decades brought new treatment options and high quality guidelines into the paediatric rheumatologic practice. Nevertheless, a number of patients still present a diagnostic and therapeutic challeng...

    Authors: Vana Vukić, Ana Smajo, Mandica Vidović, Rudolf Vukojević, Miroslav Harjaček and Lovro Lamot

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:40

    Content type: Case report

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  12. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of hand-forearm anthropometric dimensions on handgrip and pinch strengths among 7–18 years children and adolescents and to investigate the extent to which...

    Authors: Sajjad Rostamzadeh, Mahnaz Saremi, Shahram Vosoughi, Bruce Bradtmiller, Leila Janani, Ali Asghar Farshad and Fereshteh Taheri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In most low-income countries, febrile-pediatric-cases are often treated empirically with accessible antibiotics without periodic epidemiological surveillance, susceptibility testing, or minimal lethal dose cal...

    Authors: Priyatam Khadka, Januka Thapaliya and Shovana Thapa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Osteogenesis imperfecta(OI) is a frequent bone fragility disorder in children. The purpose of this study was to assess the BMD and Vitamin D level in children with OI in southern Iran.

    Authors: Pooran Mohsenzade, Anis Amirhakimi, Naser Honar, Forough Saki, Gholam Hossein Ranjbar Omrani and Mohammadhosein Dabbaghmanesh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Syringomyelia secondary to tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is rarely reported, and is usually a late complication. Acute development of syringomyelia following TBM is an exceedingly rare condition with only a few...

    Authors: Ningyuan Wen, Fumin Zhao, Yu Zhu, Fenglin Jia, Chaomin Wan and Yang Wen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:36

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Endocrine complications such as impaired growth, delayed puberty, and low bone mineral density (BMD) can be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and adolescents. This study was performe...

    Authors: Hye-Young Jin, Jae-Sang Lim, Yena Lee, Yunha Choi, Seak-Hee Oh, Kyung-Mo Kim, Han-Wook Yoo and Jin-Ho Choi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Milk feeding type (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF], formula feeding or mixed feeding) and timing of complementary feeding (CF) have been associated with infant growth. However, studies evaluating their combined ...

    Authors: Outi Sirkka, Michel H. Hof, Tanja Vrijkotte, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Jutka Halberstadt, Jacob C. Seidell and Margreet R. Olthof

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In order to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030, there is a need to significantly reduce the rate of new infection among children and young adolescents. Identifying the correlates of testing behaviour is necessary t...

    Authors: Damilola Adetoro, Hadiza Khamofu, Titilope Badru, John Markson, Oluwasanmi Adedokun, Nana Sandah-Abubakar, Ibrahim Dafa, Mario Chen, Robert Chiegil and Kwasi Torpey

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:33

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common problems in neonates. Effective treatment of jaundice requires therapeutic intervention with high quality phototherapy. Over recent years, several studies reported f...

    Authors: Helvi N. Joel, Deborah N. Mchaile, Rune N. Philemon, Ronald M. Mbwasi and Levina Msuya

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:32

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Little is known about longitudinal patterns of adolescent health risk behavior initial engagement and persistence in low- and middle-income countries.

    Authors: Alysse J. Kowalski, O. Yaw Addo, Michael R. Kramer, Reynaldo Martorell, Shane A. Norris, Rachel N. Waford, Linda M. Richter and Aryeh D. Stein

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Adolescence is marked by a decline in physical activity, rapid physical growth and changes in body composition, which have been linked to body composition. Prospective data on these associations are rare, part...

    Authors: Lisa K. Micklesfield, Sara K. Hanson, Felipe Lobelo, Solveig A. Cunningham, Terryl J. Hartman, Shane A. Norris and Aryeh D. Stein

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Acute cough in children often causes discomfort to children and parents, reducing their quality of life. Despite the extensive utilization of over-the-counter remedies for cough, the efficacy of most of these ...

    Authors: Ilaria Carnevali, Rita La Paglia, Lara Pauletto, Floriana Raso, Marco Testa, Carmen Mannucci, Emanuela Elisa Sorbara and Gioacchino Calapai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:29

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Parent-infant closeness during hospital care of newborns has many benefits for both infants and parents. We developed an educational intervention for neonatal staff, Close Collaboration with Parents, to increa...

    Authors: Felix B. He, Anna Axelin, Sari Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Simo Raiskila, Eliisa Löyttyniemi and Liisa Lehtonen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Evaluating blood pressure (BP) is one element for diagnosing and preventing disease in student populations. The objectives of this research were to (a) identify the range of height for measuring BP adjusted fo...

    Authors: Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Rubén Vidal-Espinoza, Felipe Castelli Correia de Campos, José Sulla-Torres, Wilbert Cossio-Bolaños, Cynthia Lee Andruske, Camilo Urra Albornoz and Rossana Gómez Campos

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Because of the absence of a specific diagnostic test and pathognomonic clinical features, physicians must rely on the presence of specific clinical criteria and laboratory data that support the diagnosis of KD...

    Authors: Woo Young Park, Sang Yun Lee, Gi Beom Kim, Mi Kyoung Song, Hye Won Kwon, Eun Jung Bae, Eun hwa Choi and June Dong Park

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Telomeres play a crucial role in cellular survival and its length is a predictor for onset of chronic non-communicable diseases. Studies on association between telomeres and obesity in children have brought di...

    Authors: Xuanyi Liu, Xiaozhou Liu, Qiaoyu Shi, Xiuqin Fan and Kemin Qi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Sleep and colic problems in infancy have been linked to adverse health outcome, but there is limited knowledge of the association between sleep and colic problems in infancy and subsequent development, emotion...

    Authors: Lisbeth Valla, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Randi Andenæs, Nina Misvær, Christine Olbjørn and Sølvi Helseth

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, resulting in accumulation of GM2 ganglioside, particular in neuronal cells. The disorder is caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase ...

    Authors: Thipwimol Tim-Aroon, Khunton Wichajarn, Kamornwan Katanyuwong, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, Nithiwat Vatanavicharn, Kullasate Sakpichaisakul, Arthaporn Kongkrapan, Jakris Eu-ahsunthornwattana, Supranee Thongpradit, Kanya Moolsuwan, Nusara Satproedprai, Surakameth Mahasirimongkol, Tassanee Lerksuthirat, Bhoom Suktitipat, Natini Jinawath and Duangrurdee Wattanasirichaigoon

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:22

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease. Thus, prospective studies are impossible, and therapy is still controversial. Several medicines are suggested for treatment but there are no existing indications ...

    Authors: Yiyoung Kwon, Eun Sil Kim, Yon Ho Choe and Mi Jin Kim

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Current nutritional management of infants born very preterm results in significant deficiency of the essential fatty acids (FAs) arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The impact of this defici...

    Authors: Kristina Wendel, Helle Cecilie Viekilde Pfeiffer, Drude Merete Fugelseth, Eirik Nestaas, Magnus Domellöf, Bjorn Steen Skålhegg, Katja Benedikte Presto Elgstøen, Helge Rootwelt, Rolf Dagfinn Pettersen, Are Hugo Pripp, Tom Stiris and Sissel J. Moltu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:19

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Up to now, reports on the clinical characteristics of MPS IVA mainly focused on patients with p...

    Authors: Zhuhui Ge, Jianhua Mao, Huijun Shen, Yu Xu, Haidong Fu, Weiwei Zhang and Dongyan Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:18

    Content type: Case report

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  32. We propose a modified lung ultrasound (LUS) score in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which includes posterior instead of lateral lung fields, and a 5-grade rating scale instead of a 4-grade ...

    Authors: Piotr Szymański, Piotr Kruczek, Roman Hożejowski and Piotr Wais

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:17

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Previous studies have indicated that the majority of cases with “failed” results related to transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) test have the normal hearing. The present study aimed to assess the poss...

    Authors: Mahbod Kaveh, Seyedeh Nastaran Mirjalali, Mamak Shariat and Mohammad Reza Zarkesh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:15

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The prevalence of obesity and associated risk of chronic diseases are increasing among the paediatric population. The effectiveness of preventive measures and interventions are likely to improve when all facto...

    Authors: Kalaichelvi Thillan, Pulani Lanerolle, Tharanga Thoradeniya, Dulani Samaranayake, Rohana Chandrajith and Pujitha Wickramasinghe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Desert dust events in Mediterranean countries, originating mostly from the Sahara and Arabian deserts, have been linked to climate change and are associated with significant increase in mortality and hospital ...

    Authors: Panayiotis Kouis, Stefania I. Papatheodorou, Maria G. Kakkoura, Nicos Middleton, Emmanuel Galanakis, Eleni Michaelidi, Souzana Achilleos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Marina Neophytou, Gerasimos Stamatelatos, Christos Kaniklides, Efstathios Revvas, Filippos Tymvios, Chrysanthos Savvides, Petros Koutrakis and Panayiotis K. Yiallouros

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:13

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Globally, 15 million neonates are born prematurely every year, over half in low income countries (LICs). Premature and low birth weight neonates have a higher risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). There ...

    Authors: R. MacLeod, J. N. Paulson, N. Okalany, F. Okello, L. Acom, J. Ikiror, F. M. Cowan, C. J. Tann, L. E. Dyet, C. F. Hagmann and K. Burgoine

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In Ethiopia, child undernutrition and anemia are major public health concerns, resulting in increased childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite progress made to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition (especial...

    Authors: Nigatu Regassa Geda, Cindy Xin Feng, Carol J. Henry, Rein Lepnurm, Bonnie Janzen and Susan J. Whiting

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:11

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Upper endoscopy is an essential tool for diagnosing pediatric gastrointestinal issues. This study aimed to assess the indications, diagnostic yields, concordance between histopathological and endoscopic findin...

    Authors: Eyad Altamimi, Yousef Odeh, Tuka Al-quraan, Elmi Mohamed and Naif Rawabdeh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is defined by the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on culture from samples obtained from a normally sterile site. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been developed...

    Authors: Tomohiro Hirade, Ai Harada, Daisuke Koike, Yasuhiro Abe, Tsuyoshi Higuchi, Fumihide Kato, Bin Chang and Akiyoshi Nariai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:8

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Our objectives were (1) to describe Care Transitions Measure (CTM) scores among caregivers of preterm infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and (2) to describe the association of...

    Authors: Amy M. Yeh, Ashley Y. Song, Douglas L. Vanderbilt, Cynthia Gong, Philippe S. Friedlich, Roberta Williams and Ashwini Lakshmanan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:7

    Content type: Research article

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  41. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The functional NMDA receptors are heterotetramers consisting mai...

    Authors: Jiancheng Jiao, Li Li, Min Sun, Junchen Fang, Lingzhi Meng, Yudong Zhang, Chao Jia and Li Ma

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:5

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Household air pollution exposure is linked with over 3.5 million premature deaths every year, ranking highest among environmental risk factors globally. Children are uniquely vulnerable and sensitive to the da...

    Authors: Mesafint Molla Adane, Getu Degu Alene, Seid Tiku Mereta and Kristina L. Wanyonyi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:4

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Results from previous studies suggest that bodily movements, spanning from gestures to whole-body movements, integrated into academic lessons may benefit academic learning. However, only few studies have inves...

    Authors: Anne Kær Gejl, Anne Sofie Bøgh Malling, Linn Damsgaard, Anne-Mette Veber-Nielsen and Jacob Wienecke

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:2

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Malnutrition continues to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children in resource limited settings. Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) experience severe thymus atrophy, possibly refle...

    Authors: Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Betty Lanyero, Benedikte Grenov, Henrik Friis, Hanifa Namusoke, Ezekiel Mupere, Kim F. Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard, Maria Wiese, Dennis S. Nielsen, Musemma K. Mohammed, Vibeke B. Christensen and Maren Rytter

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:1

    Content type: Research article

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