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  1. The diagnosis and treatment of Autism in Pakistan occurs in multiple settings and is provided by variety of health professionals. Unfortunately, knowledge and awareness about Autism is low among Pakistani heal...

    Authors: Nazish Imran, Mansoor R Chaudry, Muhammad W Azeem, Muhammad R Bhatti, Zaidan I Choudhary and Mohsin A Cheema

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:107

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydrati...

    Authors: Sandy M Hopper, Franz E Babl, Michelle McCarthy, Chasari Tancharoen, Katherine J Lee and Ed Oakley

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:106

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio ...

    Authors: Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Sibgha Gull, Hussain Muhammad Abdullah, Ubeera Shahid, Mushtaq Ahmad Shad and Javed Akram

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:105

    Content type: Research article

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  4. As HIV-infected infants have high mortality, the World Health Organization now recommends initiating antiretroviral therapy as early as possible in the first year of life. However, in many settings, laboratory...

    Authors: Heather B Jaspan, Landon Myer, Shabir A Madhi, Avy Violari, Diana M Gibb, Wendy S Stevens, Els Dobbels and Mark F Cotton

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:104

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be defined as a body temperature higher than 38.3°C on several occasions over more than 3 weeks, the diagnosis of which remains uncertain after 1 week of evaluation. Acute dis...

    Authors: Margherita Di Costanzo, Maria Erminia Camarca, Maria Giovanna Colella, Giuseppe Buttaro, Andrea Elefante and Roberto Berni Canani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:103

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Randomized controlled trials have shown that treatment of chronically ventilated preterm infants after the first week of life with dexamethasone reduces the incidence of the combined outcome death or bronchopu...

    Authors: Wes Onland, Martin Offringa, Filip Cools, Anne P De Jaegere, Karin Rademaker, Henry Blom, Eric Cavatorta, Anne Debeer, Peter H Dijk, Arno F van Heijst, Boris W Kramer, Andre A Kroon, Thilo Mohns, Henrica L van Straaten, Arjan B te Pas, Claire Theyskens…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:102

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a group of enzymes involved in lung tissue inflammation and surfactant catabolism. sPLA2 plays a role in adults affected by acute lung injury and seems a promising therape...

    Authors: Daniele De Luca, Ettore Capoluongo and Vincent Rigo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:101

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Children with motor impairments (e.g. difficulties with motor control, muscle tone or balance) experience significant difficulties in participating in physical play and leisure. Current interventions are often...

    Authors: Niina Kolehmainen, Jillian J Francis, Craig R Ramsay, Christine Owen, Lorna McKee, Marjolijn Ketelaar and Peter Rosenbaum

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:100

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life.

    Authors: Seema Mihrshahi, Diana Battistutta, Anthea Magarey and Lynne A Daniels

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:99

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital anomaly of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. It is associated with a high risk of mortality and pulmonary ...

    Authors: Lieke van den Hout, Dick Tibboel, Sanne Vijfhuize, Harma te Beest, Wim Hop and Irwin Reiss

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:98

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are required to test relationships between physical activity and cognition in children, but these must be informed by exploratory studies. This study aimed to inform future R...

    Authors: Abigail Fisher, James ME Boyle, James Y Paton, Phillip Tomporowski, Christine Watson, John H McColl and John J Reilly

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:97

    Content type: Research article

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  12. A six-fold increase in pediatric MRSA infections, prompted us to examine the clinical profile of children with MRSA infections seen at Mercy Children's Hospital, Toledo, Ohio and to characterize the responsibl...

    Authors: Alexis C McCullough, Melissa Seifried, Xiaochen Zhao, Jeffrey Haase, William J Kabat, Ram Yogev, Robert M Blumenthal and Deepa Mukundan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:96

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a gen...

    Authors: Kari R Hexem, Abigail M Bosk and Chris Feudtner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:95

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Bacteria which are metabolically active yet unable to be cultured and eradicated by antibiotic treatment are present in the middle ear effusion of children with chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) and re...

    Authors: Ruth B Thornton, Paul J Rigby, Selma P Wiertsema, Pierre Filion, Jennifer Langlands, Harvey L Coates, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Anthony D Keil and Peter C Richmond

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:94

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Stroke recognition tools have been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy in adults. Development of a similar tool in children is needed to reduce lag time to diagnosis. A critical first step is to determine whe...

    Authors: Adriana Yock-Corrales, Franz E Babl, Ian T Mosley and Mark T Mackay

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:93

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a new mode of mechanical ventilation controlled by diaphragmatic electrical signals. The electrical signals allow synchronization of ventilation to spontaneous br...

    Authors: Jean-Michel Liet, Jean-Marc Dejode, Nicolas Joram, Bénédicte Gaillard-Le Roux, Pierre Bétrémieux and Jean-Christophe Rozé

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:92

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Child abuse and neglect is an important international health problem with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Although maltreatment as a cause of injury is estimated to be only 1% or less of the in...

    Authors: Judith S Sittig, Cuno SPM Uiterwaal, Karel GM Moons, Edward ES Nieuwenhuis and Elise M van de Putte

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:91

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Gastroschisis patients are commonly small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight [BW] < 10th centile). However, the extent, symmetry and causes of that growth restriction remain controversial.

    Authors: Nathaniel R Payne, Susan C Simonton, Sam Olsen, Mark A Arnesen and Kathleen M Pfleghaar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:90

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is used widely to provide respiratory support for neonates, and is often the first treatment choice in tertiary centres. Recent trials have demonstrated that CPAP red...

    Authors: Christine L Roberts, Tim Badgery-Parker, Charles S Algert, Jennifer R Bowen and Natasha Nassar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:89

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Poor neonatal health is a major contributor to under-five mortality in developing countries. A major constraint to effective neonatal survival programme has been the lack of population level data in developing...

    Authors: Hafizur R Chowdhury, Sandra C Thompson, Mohammed Ali, Nurul Alam, Mohammed Yunus and Peter K Streatfield

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:88

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Assessment of pain in children is an important aspect of pain management and can be performed by observational methods or by self-assessment. The Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) is a self-report tool which ha...

    Authors: Chantal Wood, Carl L von Baeyer, Sylvain Falinower, Dominique Moyse, Daniel Annequin and Valérie Legout

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:87

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) is widely used in research as an instrument to measure quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In routine patient care however, measuring quality of life ...

    Authors: Marijke M Tibosch, Coosje JJCM Sintnicolaas, Jeannette B Peters, Peter JFM Merkus, Jan-Bart L Yntema, Christianne M Verhaak and Jan H Vercoulen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:86

    Content type: Research article

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  23. We examined the associations between substance use (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and cannabis use) and psychosocial characteristics at the individual and family levels among adolescents of the Seychell...

    Authors: Heba Alwan, Bharathi Viswanathan, Valentin Rousson, Fred Paccaud and Pascal Bovet

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:85

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Empirical evidence suggests that prenatal growth is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptoms. Data on the importance of postnatal growth is, however scanty. We studied w...

    Authors: Kati Heinonen, Katri Räikkönen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Sture Andersson, Eero Kajantie, Johan G Eriksson, Timo Vartia, Dieter Wolke and Aulikki Lano

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:84

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In 2010, researchers using novel laboratory techniques found that US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contain DNA or DNA fragments from Porcine circovirus (PCV), a virus common among pigs but not believed to cause ill...

    Authors: Daniel C Payne, Sharon Humiston, Douglas Opel, Allison Kennedy, Mary Wikswo, Kimberly Downing, Eileen J Klein, Ana Kobayashi, David Locke, Christina Albertin, Claudia Chesley and Mary A Staat

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:83

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Isotonic saline has been proposed as a safer alternative to traditional hypotonic solutions for intravenous (IV) maintenance fluids to prevent hyponatremia. However, the optimal tonicity of maintenance intrave...

    Authors: Thomas G Saba, James Fairbairn, Fiona Houghton, Diane Laforte and Bethany J Foster

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:82

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE) in Spain.

    Authors: Marta Bouzón-Alejandro, Lorenzo Redondo-Collazo, Juan Manuel Sánchez-Lastres, Nazareth Martinón-Torres, José María Martinón-Sánchez and Federico Martinón-Torres

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:81

    Content type: Research article

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  28. In cross sectional, case control and retrospective cohort studies, duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) usually depends on maternal recall. Retrospective data are often subjected to recall bias and could ...

    Authors: Suneth B Agampodi, Suranga Fernando, Samath D Dharmaratne and Thilini C Agampodi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:80

    Content type: Research article

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  29. There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hos...

    Authors: Shireen Y Issa, Eman F Badran, Kamal F Akl and Asem A Shehabi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:79

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Decision Aids (DA) are well established in various fields of medicine. It can improve the quality of decision-making and reduce decisional conflict. In neonatal care, and due to scientific equipoise, neonatolo...

    Authors: Khalid M AlFaleh, Eman Al Luwaimi, Turki M AlKharfi and Saleh A Al-Alaiyan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:78

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) given to children between 6 months and 5 years of age is known to reduce mortality in low-income countries. We have previously observed that girls benefit more from a lower dose...

    Authors: Dorthe Yakymenko, Christine S Benn, Cesario Martins, Birgitte R Diness, Ane B Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues and Peter Aaby

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:77

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The objective was to determine the influence of gestational age, maternal, and neonatal variables on reference intervals for cord blood bone minerals (calcium, phosphate, magnesium) and related laboratory test...

    Authors: Tanis R Fenton, Andrew W Lyon and M Sarah Rose

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:76

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates were low with < 30% of adolescent girls fully vaccinated. Research on barriers to vaccination has focused separately on...

    Authors: Cayce C Hughes, Amanda L Jones, Kristen A Feemster and Alexander G Fiks

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:74

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Early-onset depressive disorders can have severe consequences both from developmental and functional aspects. The etiology of depressive disorders is complex and multi-factorial, with an intricate interaction ...

    Authors: Cássia R Benko, Antonio C Farias, Lucilene G Farias, Erico F Pereira, Fernando M Louzada and Mara L Cordeiro

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:73

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of molecularly defined congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) due to mutations in the GM-CSF receptor are not well known.

    Authors: Matthias Griese, Jan Ripper, Anke Sibbersen, Pia Lohse, Peter Lohse, Frank Brasch, Andrea Schams, Asli Pamir, Bianca Schaub, Oliver J Muensterer, Carola Schön, Judith Glöckner-Pagel, Thomas Nicolai, Karl Reiter and Andreas Hector

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:72

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is...

    Authors: Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Kamilla L Venner, Hilary K Mead and Angela D Bryan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:71

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that pediatricians should be involved in tobacco counseling and has developed guidelines for counseling. We present a prognostic tool for use by health care practit...

    Authors: Igor Karp, Gilles Paradis, Marie Lambert, Erika Dugas and Jennifer O'Loughlin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:70

    Content type: Research article

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  38. HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children are a rapidly growing population that may be at an increased risk of illness compared to HIV-unexposed children (HIVn). The aim of this study was to investigate the morbi...

    Authors: Jonathan S Karpelowsky, Alastair JW Millar, Nelleke van der Graaf, Guido van Bogerijen and Heather J Zar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:69

    Content type: Research article

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  39. There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a seco...

    Authors: Michael Absoud, Carole Cummins, Wui K Chong, Christian De Goede, Katharine Foster, Roxanna Gunny, Cheryl Hemingway, Philip Jardine, Rachel Kneen, Marcus Likeman, Ming J Lim, Mike Pike, Naomi Sibtain, William P Whitehouse and Evangeline Wassmer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:68

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Children living with HIV continue to be in urgent need of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART). Strategies to scale up and improve pediatric HIV care in resource-poor regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa...

    Authors: Laurence Ahoua, Gunar Guenther, Christine Rouzioux, Loretxu Pinoges, Paul Anguzu, Anne-Marie Taburet, Suna Balkan, David M Olson, Charles Olaro and Mar Pujades-Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:67

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of chil...

    Authors: Margaret CS Boguszewski, Veronica Mericq, Ignacio Bergada, Durval Damiani, Alicia Belgorosky, Peter Gunczler, Teresa Ortiz, Mauricio Llano, Horacio M Domené, Raúl Calzada-León, Armando Blanco, Margarita Barrientos, Patricio Procel, Roberto Lanes and Orlando Jaramillo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:66

    Content type: Debate

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  42. Coping with a chronic illness (CI) challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may preven...

    Authors: Linde Scholten, Agnes M Willemen, Martha A Grootenhuis, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Carlo Schuengel and Bob F Last

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:65

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of...

    Authors: Atinuke M Agunloye, Adejumoke I Ayede and Samuel I Omokhodion

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:64

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI). Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a diff...

    Authors: Inge Huybrechts, John H Himes, Charlene Ottevaere, Tineke De Vriendt, Willem De Keyzer, Bianca Cox, Inge Van Trimpont, Dirk De Bacquer and Stefaan De Henauw

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:63

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Iron is involved in important vital functions as an essential component of the oxygen-transporting heme mechanism. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative metabolites from maternal cigarette smoke...

    Authors: Anna M Lavezzi, Lucijan Mohorovic, Graziella Alfonsi, Melissa F Corna and Luigi Matturri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:62

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in post-operative pediatric patients receiving intravenous maintenance fluid therapy. If plasma sodium concentration (p-Na+) declines to levels b...

    Authors: Urban Fläring, Per-Arne Lönnqvist, Björn Frenckner, Jan F Svensson, Ingimar Ingolfsson, Lena Wallensteen, Shayarina Stigzelius, Jan Kowalski and Rafael T Krmar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:61

    Content type: Study protocol

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  47. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibioti...

    Authors: Sotiria G Panagakou, Νikos Spyridis, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Kalliopi M Theodoridou, Georgia P Goutziana, Maria N Theodoridou, George A Syrogiannopoulos and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:60

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation...

    Authors: Luisa A Ribeiro, Henrik D Zachrisson, Synnve Schjolberg, Heidi Aase, Nina Rohrer-Baumgartner and Per Magnus

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:59

    Content type: Research article

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