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  1. Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and...

    Authors: Tiejian Wu, Joanne W Flowers, Fred Tudiver, Jim L Wilson and Natavut Punyasavatsut

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  2. SRY (sex-determining region, Y) is the gene responsible of gonadal differentiation in the male and it is essential for the regular development of male genitalia. Translocations involving the human sex chromosome...

    Authors: M Ellaithi, D Gisselsson, T Nilsson, S Abd El-Fatah, T Ali, A Elagib, ME Ibrahim and I Fadl-Elmula

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:11

    Content type: Case report

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  3. We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case ...

    Authors: Wing-Yee Kwok, Marjolein CE de Kwaadsteniet, Mirjam Harmsen, Lisette WA van Suijlekom-Smit, François G Schellevis and Johannes C van der Wouden

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The contribution of birth defects, including cleft lip and palate, to neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity is substantial. As other mortality and morbidity causes including infections, hygiene, prematur...

    Authors: George L Wehby, Eduardo E Castilla, Norman Goco, Monica Rittler, Viviana Cosentino, Lorette Javois, Ann Marie McCarthy, Georgiy Bobashev, Stephen Litavecz, Alejandra Mariona, Graca Dutra, Jorge S López-Camelo, Iêda M Orioli and Jeffrey C Murray

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:9

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Monitoring plasma gentamicin concentrations in neonates 24 hours after a once daily dose (4 mg/kg) often necessitates additional blood sampling. In adults a nomogram has been developed enabling evaluation of g...

    Authors: Elaine M Boyle, Isobel Brookes, Kathy Nye, Mike Watkinson and F Andrew I Riordan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:8

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Early detection and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is important in the prevention of bilirubin-induced encephalopathy. In this study, we evaluated the New Jersey pediatricians' practices and beliefs ...

    Authors: Anna Petrova, Rajeev Mehta, Gillian Birchwood, Barbara Ostfeld and Thomas Hegyi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given to Canadian Aboriginal neonates in selected communities. Severe reactions and deaths associated with BCG have been reported among infants born with immunodeficien...

    Authors: Michael Clark and D William Cameron

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  8. There are no prospective studies that have examined for chronic cough in children without lung disease but with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). In otherwise healthy children undergoing flexible upper gastrointe...

    Authors: Anne B Chang, Nancy C Cox, Joan Faoagali, Geoffrey J Cleghorn, Christopher Beem, Looi C Ee, Geoffrey D Withers, Mark K Patrick and Peter J Lewindon

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Our primary purpose was to determine the normal range and variability of blood volume (BV) in healthy children, in order to provide reference values during childhood and adolescence. Our secondary aim was to c...

    Authors: Ann Raes, Sarah Van Aken, Margarita Craen, Raymond Donckerwolcke and Johan Vande Walle

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:3

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight...

    Authors: David A Paul, Kathleen H Leef, Robert G Locke, Louis Bartoshesky, Judy Walrath and John L Stefano

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  11. A number of infant pain measures have been developed over the past 15 years incorporating behavioural and physiologic indicators; however, no reliable or valid measure exists for infants who are at risk for ne...

    Authors: Bonnie Stevens, Patrick McGrath, Janet Yamada, Sharyn Gibbins, Joseph Beyene, Lynn Breau, Carol Camfield, Allen Finley, Linda Franck, Alexandra Howlett, Celeste Johnston, Patricia McKeever, Karel O'Brien and Arne Ohlsson

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2006 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS) is the main cause of late-onset sepsis in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). Although CONS rarely causes fulminant sepsis, vancomycin is frequently used as empiric t...

    Authors: Sarah L Lawrence, Virginia Roth, Robert Slinger, Baldwin Toye, Isabelle Gaboury and Brigitte Lemyre

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:49

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The condition of obesity has become a significant public health problem in the United States. In children and adolescents, the prevalence of overweight has tripled in the last 20 years, with approximately 16.0...

    Authors: Carol Curtin, Linda G Bandini, Ellen C Perrin, David J Tybor and Aviva Must

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:48

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is so rare in developed countries with measles immunization programs that national active surveillance is now needed to capture sufficient number of cases for meaning...

    Authors: Craig Campbell, Simon Levin, Peter Humphreys, Wikke Walop and Renee Brannan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:47

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Anaemia is highly prevalent in children of developing countries. It is associated with impaired physical growth and mental development. Palmar pallor is recommended at primary level for diagnosing it, on the b...

    Authors: Juan P Chalco, Luis Huicho, Carlos Alamo, Nilton Y Carreazo and Carlos A Bada

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:46

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Care procedures for preventing neonatal diseases are carried out according to nurseries' traditions and may be not consistent with the evidence based medicine issues.

    Authors: Andrea Guala, Roberta Guarino, Mauro Zaffaroni, Claudio Martano, Claudio Fabris, Guido Pastore and Gianni Bona

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:45

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to the U.S. recommended childhood immunization schedule in the year 2000 added three injections to the number of vaccinations a child is expected to rec...

    Authors: Nancy D Lin, Ken Kleinman, K Arnold Chan, Xian-Jie Yu, Eric K France, Stanley Xu, Feifei Wei, John Mullooly, Jeanne Santoli and Tracy A Lieu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:43

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a test frequently performed on children presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED), usually for the evaluation of an infectious illness. The CBC also allows for sc...

    Authors: Martin V Pusic, Brenda J Dawyduk and David Mitchell

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:42

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The increased survival of preterm and very low birth weight infants in recent years has been well documented but continued surveillance is required in order to monitor the effects of new therapeutic interventi...

    Authors: Huw P Jones, Stella Karuri, Catherine MG Cronin, Arne Ohlsson, Abraham Peliowski, Anne Synnes and Shoo K Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:40

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Bronchitis obliterans is a severe and extremely rare complication of respiratory tract infections in children and is characterized by massive atelectasis and collapse of the affected lung. Of the rare cases re...

    Authors: Elke Govaere, Dirk Van Raemdonck, Hugo Devlieger, Maria-Helena Smet, Eric Verbeken, Marijke Proesmans and Kris De Boeck

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:39

    Content type: Case report

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  21. The delivery of optimal medical care to children is dependent on the availability of child relevant research. Our objectives were to: i) systematically review and describe how children are handled in reviews o...

    Authors: Kristie Cramer, Natasha Wiebe, Virginia Moyer, Lisa Hartling, Katrina Williams, George Swingler and Terry P Klassen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:38

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The antipyretic effectiveness of rectal versus oral acetaminophen is not well established. This study is designed to compare the antipyretic effectiveness of two rectal acetaminophen doses (15 mg/kg) and (35 m...

    Authors: Mona Nabulsi, Hala Tamim, Ramzi Sabra, Ziyad Mahfoud, Shadi Malaeb, Hadi Fakih and Mohammad Mikati

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:35

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differe...

    Authors: Larry Burd, Roger D Freeman, Marilyn G Klug and Jacob Kerbeshian

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:34

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Because there are no child-friendly, validated, self-report measures of dyspnea or breathlessness, we developed, and provided initial validation, of three, 7-item, pictorial scales depicting three sub-construc...

    Authors: Patrick J McGrath, Paul T Pianosi, Anita M Unruh and Chloe P Buckley

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Spina Bifida (SB) is the second most common birth defect worldwide. Since the chances of survival in children with severe SB-forms have increased, medical care has shifted its emphasis from life-saving interve...

    Authors: Ignace PR Vermaes, Jan MAM Janssens, Anna MT Bosman and Jan RM Gerris

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causes of hospitalisation during infancy in our region with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) historically being the major causative agent. Many infants with...

    Authors: Hans-Olav Fjærli, Teresa Farstad, Gisle Rød, Gunn Kristin Ufert, Pål Gulbrandsen and Britt Nakstad

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  27. PCO2 and PO2 are important monitoring parameters in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Compared to conventional blood gas measurements that cause significant blood loss in preterms, transcutaneous (tc) measure...

    Authors: Mario Rüdiger, Kerstin Töpfer, Hannes Hammer, Gerd Schmalisch and Roland R Wauer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Iron supplementation may be associated with oxidative stress particularly in premature infants. Our purpose was to examine 1) early supplemental iron during treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) and oxidative st...

    Authors: James K Friel, Khalid Aziz, Wayne L Andrews and Robert E Serfass

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:29

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Little is known about the factors that predispose to the occurrence and severity of cardio-respiratory symptoms during the placement of a prematurely born infant in a car seat. The impact of gestational age, w...

    Authors: Vallier C Ojadi, Anna Petrova, Rajeev Mehta and Thomas Hegyi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:28

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Middle ear disease (otitis media) is common and frequently severe in Australian Aboriginal children. There have not been any recent large-scale surveys using clear definitions and a standardised middle ear ass...

    Authors: Peter S Morris, Amanda J Leach, Peter Silberberg, Gabrielle Mellon, Cate Wilson, Elizabeth Hamilton and Jemima Beissbarth

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:27

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and...

    Authors: Noël BB Knops, Kommer CA Sneeuw, Ronald Brand, Elysee TM Hille, A Lya den Ouden, Jan-Maarten Wit and S Pauline Verloove-Vanhorick

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk...

    Authors: Rebekka Veugelers, Elsbeth AC Calis, Corine Penning, Arianne Verhagen, Roos Bernsen, Jan Bouquet, Marc A Benninga, Peter JFM Merkus, Hubertus GM Arets, Dick Tibboel and Heleen M Evenhuis

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:25

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is believed to be more common in adult males as compared to females. It also has been shown in adults to be more common in Caucasians. We wanted to determine ethnicity an...

    Authors: Dena Nazer, Ronald Thomas and Vasundhara Tolia

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:24

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Information is lacking on the effects of congenital toxoplasmosis on development, behavior, and impairment in later childhood, as well as on parental concerns and anxiety. This information is important for cou...

    Authors: Katherine Freeman, Alison Salt, Andrea Prusa, Gunilla Malm, Nicole Ferret, Wilma Buffolano, Dorthe Schmidt, Hooi Kuan Tan and Ruth E Gilbert

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:23

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Nosocomial infection (NI), particularly with positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid bacterial cultures, is a major cause of morbidity in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Rates of NI appear to vary substan...

    Authors: Khalid Aziz, Douglas D McMillan, Wayne Andrews, Margaret Pendray, Zhenguo Qiu, Stella Karuri and Shoo K Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:22

    Content type: Research article

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  36. We aimed to determine how response to a parent-completed postal questionnaire measuring development, behaviour, impairment, and parental concerns and anxiety, varies in different European centres.

    Authors: A Salt, K Freeman, A Prusa, N Ferret, W Buffolano, G Malm, D Schmidt, HK Tan and RE Gilbert

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Induced mutagenesis in utero is likely to have life-long repercussions for the exposed fetus, affecting survival, birth weight and susceptibility to both childhood and adult-onset diseases, such as cancer. In the...

    Authors: Stephen G Grant

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Determination of PC20-FEV1 during Methacholine bronchial provocation test (MCT) is considered to be impossible in preschool children, as it requires repetitive spirometry sets. The aim of this study was to assess...

    Authors: Lea Bentur, Raphael Beck, Nael Elias, Asher Barak, Ori Efrati, Yaacov Yahav and Daphna Vilozni

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  39. For treatment of Graf class IIb dysplastic hips at walking onset a treatment concept with abduction splints allowing patterns as walking and crawling under constant abduction control was investigated. However,...

    Authors: Henning Windhagen, Fritz Thorey, Heinrich Kronewid, Thomas Pressel, Dieter Herold and Christina Stukenborg-Colsman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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  40. It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM) have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk popu...

    Authors: Katherine B Gibney, Peter S Morris, Jonathan R Carapetis, Susan A Skull, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Elizabeth Stubbs and Amanda J Leach

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be...

    Authors: Hanneke Visser – van Balen, Rinie Geenen, Gerdine A Kamp, Jaap Huisman, Jan M Wit and Gerben Sinnema

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis and may affect cerebral function acutely. The aim of the present study was to measure a number of behaviour and social parameters within a cohort of Kawasaki disease p...

    Authors: Daniel Carlton-Conway, Raju Ahluwalia, Lucy Henry, Colin Michie, Louise Wood and Robert Tulloh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:14

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The appropriateness of an individual's intra uterine growth is now considered an important determinant of both short and long term outcomes, yet currently used measures have several shortcomings. This study de...

    Authors: Eve M Blair, Yingxin Liu, Nicholas H de Klerk and David M Lawrence

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2005 5:13

    Content type: Research article

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