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Infection

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of infectious diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. Adherence to an antiretroviral regimen is imperative for treatment success in both HIV infected adults and children. Likewise, adherence to antiretroviral prophylaxis is critical in HIV prevention. Studies on ...

    Authors: Alicia Catherine Desmond, Dhayendre Moodley, Catherine A Conolly, Sandra A Castel and Hoosen M Coovadia

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2015 15:23

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Despite expanded programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), HIV-infected infants may not be diagnosed until they are ill. Comparing HIV prevalence and outcomes in infants diagnosed in...

    Authors: Anjuli Wagner, Jennifer Slyker, Agnes Langat, Irene Inwani, Judith Adhiambo, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Ken Tapia, Irene Njuguna, Dalton Wamalwa and Grace John-Stewart

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2015 15:10

    Content type: Research article

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  3. This study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of various immune interventions on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

    Authors: Hui Jin, Yueyuan Zhao, Zhaoying Tan, Xuefeng Zhang, Yaoyun Zhao, Bei Wang and Pei Liu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:307

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The relative incidence and clinical impact of individual respiratory viruses remains unclear among children presenting to the hospital emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI).

    Authors: Jairo Gooskens, Vishnu van der Ploeg, Ram N Sukhai, Ann CTM Vossen, Eric CJ Claas and Aloys CM Kroes

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:297

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is common among young children insured through Medicaid in the United States. Complete and timely dosing with palivizumab is associated with lower risk of RSV-r...

    Authors: Leonard R Krilov, Anthony S Masaquel, Leonard B Weiner, David M Smith, Sally W Wade and Parthiv J Mahadevia

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:261

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Parents’ knowledge about immunization is an important predictor factor for their children’s immunization status. The aims of this study were to assess parents’ knowledge and to evaluate the effect of a short e...

    Authors: Ammar Ihsan Awadh, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Omer Qutaiba Al-lela, Siti Halimah Bux, Ramadan M Elkalmi and Hazrina Hadi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:254

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Children under 5 represent 86% of annual malaria deaths in the world. Following increasing trends in international travel, cases of imported malaria are rising in North America. We describe the epidemiology of...

    Authors: Andrea B Evans, Dina Kulik, Anna Banerji, Andrea Boggild, Kevin C Kain, Mohamed Abdelhaleem and Shaun K Morris

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:251

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The Ethiopian epidemic is currently on the wane. However, the situation for infected children is in some ways lagging behind due to low treatment coverage and deficient prevention of mother-to-child transmissi...

    Authors: Emil Westerlund, Degu Jerene, Zewdie Mulissa, Inger Hallström and Bernt Lindtjørn

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:250

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Despite huge public campaigns, there is still overconsumption of antibiotics in children with self-limiting diseases. Possible explanations may be the physicians’ and parents’ uncertainty about the gravity of ...

    Authors: Marieke B Lemiengre, Jan Y Verbakel, Tine De Burghgraeve, Bert Aertgeerts, Frans De Baets, Frank Buntinx and An De Sutter

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:246

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Acute illness is the most common presentation of children to ambulatory care. In contrast, serious infections are rare and often present at an early stage. To avoid complications or death, early recognition an...

    Authors: Jan Y Verbakel, Marieke B Lemiengre, Tine De Burghgraeve, An De Sutter, Dominique M A Bullens, Bert Aertgeerts and Frank Buntinx

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:207

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. To determine the serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for pneumonia complicated by parapneumonic effusion in children, we performed real-time PCR based pneumococcal “serotyping” directly on parapneum...

    Authors: Robert Slinger, Lucie Hyde, Ioana Moldovan, Francis Chan and Jeffrey M Pernica

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:189

    Content type: Research article

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  12. To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific ...

    Authors: Jakob Holstiege, Tania Schink, Mariam Molokhia, Giampiero Mazzaglia, Francesco Innocenti, Alessandro Oteri, Irene Bezemer, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Aurora Puccini, Sinna Pilgaard Ulrichsen, Miriam C Sturkenboom, Gianluca Trifirò and Edeltraut Garbe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:174

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are considered major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) worldwide, but data from Asia on primary causes of AOM are li...

    Authors: Pavinee Intakorn, Nuntigar Sonsuwan, Suwiwan Noknu, Greetha Moungthong, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Yanfang Liu, Melissa K Van Dyke and William P Hausdorff

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:157

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in the pediatric population. The clinical presentation is frequently nonspecific; thus diagnosis is often delayed or ...

    Authors: Elena Bozzola, Mauro Bozzola, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Valeria Calcaterra, Annachiara Vittucci, Matteo Luciani and Alberto Villani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:147

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are leading causes of hospitalisation in children. Birth defects occur in 5% of live births in Western Australia (WA). The association between birth defects and ALRI ...

    Authors: Khadra A Jama-Alol, Hannah C Moore, Peter Jacoby, Carol Bower and Deborah Lehmann

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:80

    Content type: Research article

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  16. While studies of HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral treatment (ART) report no sex differences in immune recovery and virologic response but more ART-associated complications in women, sex differences in dis...

    Authors: Stephanie Shiau, Louise Kuhn, Renate Strehlau, Leigh Martens, Helen McIlleron, Sandra Meredith, Lubbe Wiesner, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams and Stephen M Arpadi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:39

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of health care–associated diarrhea in children and adults. Although serious complications of CDI have been reported to be increasing in adults, this...

    Authors: Kevin L Schwartz, Ilyse Darwish, Susan E Richardson, Michael R Mulvey and Nisha Thampi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:28

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Erythema infectiosum is the most common clinical manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection although it has also been associated with rheumatologic diseases and various types of systemic vasculitides. Acute hep...

    Authors: Maria Koliou, Evaggelia Karaoli, Elpidoforos S Soteriades, Sylvie Pavlides, Stavros Bashiardes and Christina Christodoulou

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:6

    Content type: Case report

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  19. In the United States, influenza vaccination is recommended for all children 6 months and older; however, vaccination rates are below target levels. A broad sample of U.S. pediatric offices was assessed to dete...

    Authors: Chyongchiou Jeng Lin, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Seth L Toback and Christopher S Ambrose

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:180

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In two clinical trials, low-grade fever was observed more frequently after coadministration than after separate administration of two recommended routine pediatric vaccines. Since fever is an important issue w...

    Authors: Markus A Rose, Christine Juergens, Beate Schmoele-Thoma, William C Gruber, Sherryl Baker and Stefan Zielen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:98

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Adherence to antiretroviral drugs in the treatment of paediatric HIV infection is complicated because of many factors including stigma and drug intake logistics. It is therefore important to identify children ...

    Authors: Frida William Mghamba, Omary MS Minzi, Augustine Massawe and Philip Sasi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:95

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Rates of laboratory testing and diagnostic practices for congenital CMV in the United States are unknown. We determined rates of CMV testing and diagnostic coding for CMV among insured infants in the United St...

    Authors: Jessica Leung, Michael J Cannon, Scott D Grosse and Stephanie R Bialek

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:90

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Rotavirus is a leading worldwide cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. This retrospective hospital-based study assessed the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children younger than 6 years in J...

    Authors: Hitoshi Tajiri, Yuriko Takeuchi, Tomoko Takano, Toshihiro Ohura, Ayano Inui, Kimie Yamamoto, Yoshihito Higashidate, Hisashi Kawashima, Shigeru Toyoda, Kosuke Ushijima, Gunasekaran Ramakrishnan, Mats Rosenlund and Katsiaryna Holl

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:83

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Granulicatella spp. is a fastidious bacteria responsible for bacteremia and endocarditis which are fatal in about 20% of the cases. These severe infections are uncommon in children under 17 years of age and ha...

    Authors: Maia De Luca, Donato Amodio, Sara Chiurchiù, Maria Assunta Castelluzzo, Gabriele Rinelli, Paola Bernaschi, Francesca Ippolita Calò Carducci and Patrizia D’Argenio

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:61

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. This study investigated the bacterial and viral etiology and related clinical and epidemiological factors in children with a...

    Authors: Isidore Juste O Bonkoungou, Kaisa Haukka, Monica Österblad, Antti J Hakanen, Alfred S Traoré, Nicolas Barro and Anja Siitonen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:36

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Critical illness constitutes a serious derangement of metabolism. The aim of our study was to compare acute phase metabolic patterns in children with sepsis (S) or severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) to those with...

    Authors: Diana-Michaela Fitrolaki, Helen Dimitriou, Maria Kalmanti and George Briassoulis

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:31

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Middle ear infection is common in childhood. Despite its prevalence, there is little longitudinal evidence about the impact of ear infection, particularly its association to hearing loss. By using 6-year prosp...

    Authors: Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Anthony Hogan and Lyndall Strazdins

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:28

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Antibiotic surveillance is mandatory to optimise antibiotic therapy. Our objectives were to evaluate antibiotic use in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to implement a simple achievable intervention...

    Authors: Martin Stocker, Eduardo Ferrao, Winston Banya, Jamie Cheong, Duncan Macrae and Anke Furck

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:196

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. One of the main difficulties is obtaining adequate specimens for bacteriological confirmation of the disease in ...

    Authors: Minime-Lingoupou Fanny, Narcisse Beyam, Jean Chrusostome Gody, G Zandanga, F Yango, Alexandre Manirakiza, Leen Rigouts, Catherine Pierre-Audigier, Brigitte Gicquel and Gustave Bobossi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:191

    Content type: Research article

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  30. A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent’s interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate ...

    Authors: Julie Leask, Paul Kinnersley, Cath Jackson, Francine Cheater, Helen Bedford and Greg Rowles

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:154

    Content type: Correspondence

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  31. Follow up of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-exposed infants is an important component of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programmes in order to ascertain infant outcomes post delivery. W...

    Authors: Terusha Chetty, Stephen Knight, Janet Giddy, Tamaryn L Crankshaw, Lisa M Butler and Marie-Louise Newell

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:146

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Whether lumbar punctures (LPs) should be performed routinely for term newborns suspected of having early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) is subject to debate. It is unclear whether variations in performance of LP...

    Authors: Stephen W Patrick, Robert E Schumacher and Matthew M Davis

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:134

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of pediatric admission to hospital. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP in children admitted to a ...

    Authors: Anne Rowan-Legg, Nicholas Barrowman, Nazih Shenouda, Khaldoun Koujok and Nicole Le Saux

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:133

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes acute tonsillopharyngitis in children, and approximately 20% of this population are chronic carriers of GAS. Antibacterial therapy has previously been shown to be insufficient a...

    Authors: Amity L Roberts, Kristie L Connolly, Daniel J Kirse, Adele K Evans, Katherine A Poehling, Timothy R Peters and Sean D Reid

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:3

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Studies of the apoptosis mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis have suggested that Mycobacterium tuberculosis can actively interfere with the apoptosis of infected cells. In vivo studies have be...

    Authors: Paola Di Carlo, Alessandra Casuccio, Amelia Romano, Daria Spicola, Lucina Titone, Nadia Caccamo, Francesco Dieli, Caterina Mammina, Elisabetta Pace, Mark Gjomarkaj, Mario Melis and Manlio Tolomeo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:108

    Content type: Research article

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