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Infection

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of infectious diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. In Senegal in 2015, an estimated 4800 children were living with HIV, with 1200 receiving ARV treatment, of whom half had follow-up care in decentralized sites outside Dakar.

    Authors: Abdoul-Magib Cissé, Gabrièle Laborde-Balen, Khady Kébé-Fall, Aboubacry Dramé, Halimatou Diop, Karim Diop, FatouNiasse-Traoré, Mohamed Coulibaly, Ndeye-Ngone Have, Nicole Vidal, Safiatou Thiam, Abdoulaye S. Wade, Martine Peeters, Bernard Taverne, Philippe Msellati and Coumba Touré-Kane

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:47

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Brazil introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in 2006. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology and genotype distribution of species-A rotavirus (RVA) in Brazil, comparing the pre- and post-vac...

    Authors: Filipe A. Carvalho-Costa, Rosane M. S. de Assis, Alexandre M. Fialho, Irene T. Araújo, Marcelle F. Silva, Mariela M. Gómez, Juliana S. Andrade, Tatiana L. Rose, Tulio M. Fumian, Eduardo M. Volotão, Marize P. Miagostovich and José Paulo G. Leite

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:42

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Smartphones and associated messaging applications have become the most common means of communication among health care workers and the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability ...

    Authors: İlker Devrim, Mine Düzgöl, Ahu Kara, İlknur Çağlar, Fatma Devrim, Nuri Bayram and Hurşit Apa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:40

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Treatment failure and delay in switching to second line regimen are major concerns in the treatment of HIV infected children in a resource limited setting. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence...

    Authors: Gelila Solomon Haile and Alemseged Beyene Berha

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:37

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of most common pediatric infections. The study was designed to assess the clinical profile, common bacterial microorganisms causing UTI and their antimicrobial susceptibili...

    Authors: Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Ratna Baral, Prakash Poudel and Basudha Khanal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:36

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Blood stream infections (BSIs) cause a complex cascade of inflammatory events, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in children in Tanzania. This study was designed to delineate circulating bacteri...

    Authors: J. Seni, A. A. Mwakyoma, F. Mashuda, R. Marando, M. Ahmed, R. DeVinney, J. D. D. Pitout and S. E. Mshana

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:32

    Content type: Research article

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  7. To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended 2-step rapid antigen detection test (RADT) with confirmatory culture vs the point-of-care (POC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Roche cobas® Liat® ...

    Authors: Arundhati Rao, Bradley Berg, Theresa Quezada, Robert Fader, Kimberly Walker, Shaowu Tang, Ula Cowen, Dana Duncan and Joanna Sickler

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:24

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The identification of sepsis in children varies depending on the definition used. Our purpose was to compare clinical data and outcome of atypical sepsis, manifested as having sepsis but not fulfilling the cri...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Xiaofei Lin, Hongni Yue, Niranjan Kissoon and Bo Sun

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:11

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The assessment of ear pain is challenging in young, mostly preverbal children. Our aim was to investigate whether pain scales are useful tools for parents to detect pain in their young children with the suspic...

    Authors: Johanna M. Uitti, Sanna Salanterä, Miia K. Laine, Paula A. Tähtinen and Aino Ruohola

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:392

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients contributes to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Implementing a stewardship programme to curb the problem requires inf...

    Authors: Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Gifty Sunkwa-Mills, Antoinette Bediako-Bowan, Christiana Akufo, Stephanie Bjerrum, Enid Owusu, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Jorgen Anders Lindholm Kurtzhals and Mercy Jemima Newman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:391

    Content type: Research article

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  11. There have been few studies focused on the prevalence, bacterial etiology, antibiotic resistance, and genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in children with acute otitis media (AOM) in China.

    Authors: Yan Ling Ding, Jinjian Fu, Jichang Chen, Sheng Fu Mo, Shaolin Xu, Nan Lin, Peixu Qin and Eric McGrath

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:388

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Vaccination is still one of the most important methods to control and prevent childhood infections including diphtheria and pertussis. This study evaluated the level of diphtheria (DT) and pertussis (PT)-relat...

    Authors: Qinghong Meng, Lijun Li, Wei Shi, Qing Wang, Mingjie Ding, Yanqin Liu, Xiang Ma and Kaihu Yao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:383

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) that asymptomatically colonizing the recto-vaginal area of women is the most important cause of neonatal colonization. There is paucity of evidence about newborn colonization with GBS ...

    Authors: Mucheye Gizachew, Moges Tiruneh, Feleke Moges, Mulat Adefris, Zemene Tigabu and Belay Tessema

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:378

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection leads to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and neurodevelopmental delays. However, the long-term outcomes of cCMV infection with severe neurological manifestations i...

    Authors: Eisuke Suganuma, Akira Oka, Hideaki Sakata, Nodoka Adachi, Satoshi Asanuma, Eiji Oguma, Akira Yamaguchi, Mihoko Furuichi, Yoji Uejima, Satoshi Sato, Tadamasa Takano, Yutaka Kawano, Risa Tanaka, Takashi Arai and Tsutomu Oh-Ishi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:369

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been introduced in the infant immunisation programmes in many countries to reduce the rate of fatal pneumococcal infections. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Con...

    Authors: Archippe M. Birindwa, Matilda Emgård, Rickard Nordén, Ebba Samuelsson, Shadi Geravandi, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Balthazar Muhigirwa, Théophile Kashosi, Eric Munguakonkwa, Jeanière T. Manegabe, Didace Cibicabene, Lambert Morisho, Benjamin Mwambanyi, Jacques Mirindi, Nadine Kabeza, Magnus Lindh…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:361

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive status disclosure is an essential component of Pediatric care and long term disease management. Children have a right to know their HIV diagnosis result. However, Pe...

    Authors: Bikila Lencha, Gemehu Ameya, Zanebe Minda, Feyissa Lamessa and Jiregna Darega

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:356

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Bacterial meningitis is a paediatric emergency with high mortality and morbidity requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Clinically, it is often difficult to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial...

    Authors: Shipra Chaudhary, Nisha Keshary Bhatta, Madhab Lamsal, Rajendra Kumar Chaudhari and Basudha Khanal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:342

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis globally in children under 5 years of age and is responsible for approximately 5% of all child deaths yearly. Rotavirus vaccination is cons...

    Authors: Catherine Muendo, Ahmed Laving, Rashmi Kumar, Boniface Osano, Thaddaeus Egondi and Pamela Njuguna

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:323

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is one of the major agents to cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks globally. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical manifestations ...

    Authors: Jie Li, Rong Zhu, Da Huo, Yiwei Du, Yuxiang Yan, Zhichao Liang, Yanxia Luo, Yang Yang, Lei Jia, Lijuan Chen, Quanyi Wang and Yan He

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:277

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Liver dysfunction is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis of patients with sepsis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of continuous hemofiltration in patients with bacterial sepsis compl...

    Authors: Yun Cui, Xi Xiong, Fei Wang, Yuqian Ren, Chunxia Wang and Yucai Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:269

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The mortality rate due to severe sepsis is approximately 30–60%. Sepsis readily progresses to septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction, representing a significant problem in the pediatric intensive care uni...

    Authors: Hai peng Yan, Miao Li, Xiu lan Lu, Yi min Zhu, Wen-xian Ou-yang, Zheng hui Xiao, Jun Qiu and Shuang jie Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:267

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Universal HIV testing and treatment of infected children remain challenging in resource-limited settings (RLS), leading to undiagnosed children/adolescents and limited access to pediatric antiretroviral therap...

    Authors: Calixte Ida Penda, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Daniele Kedy Koum, Joseph Fokam, Cedric Anatole Zambo Meyong, Sandrine Talla and Paul Koki Ndombo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:259

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death among children aged below 5 years. Even though, both preventable and treatable diseases, globally there are nearly 1.7 billion cases of childhood diarrho...

    Authors: Wondwossen Abebe, Alemu Earsido, Solomon Taye, Mesfin Assefa, Adane Eyasu and Girma Godebo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:241

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients worldwide and imposes an intense pressure on health care facilities. Data on the epidemiology profiles of...

    Authors: Jiayi Chen, Pengwei Hu, Tao Zhou, Tianli Zheng, Lingxu Zhou, Chunping Jiang and Xiaofang Pei

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:216

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Human milk is fundamental for its nutritional properties and to protect newborns, but it is not sterile and can sometime transmit bacteria. Few anecdotal cases suggest that breast milk could be a possible sour...

    Authors: Giangiacomo Nicolini, Martina Borellini, Vitaliana Loizzo, Roberta Creti, Luigi Memo and Alberto Berardi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:214

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Neonatal sepsis, one of the leading causes of mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of developing countries like Nepal, is often not extensively studied. In order to decrease the morbidity and mort...

    Authors: Bhishma Pokhrel, Tapendra Koirala, Ganesh Shah, Suchita Joshi and Pinky Baral

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:208

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Hemolytic streptococcus gangrene is a life threatening invasive bacterial infection. Hemolytic streptococcus gangrene in the danger triangle of the face is too lethal to operate. A case of the confirmed hemolytic...

    Authors: Xiao-ling Jia, Janak L. Pathak, Jin-fa Tong and Ji-mei Su

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:198

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  28. During the past decades Streptococcus pneumoniae has developed significant resistance to many classes of antimicrobial drugs. Potential risk factors for colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Authors: Maria G. Koliou, Kyriaki Andreou, Demetris Lamnisos, Giagkos Lavranos, Paris Iakovides, Christos Economou and Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:144

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Globally, childhood diarrhea is amongst the most prevalent health problems and accounts for 9% of all deaths in children under-five. In Ethiopia, childhood diarrhea is a major public health problem in which th...

    Authors: Kiflom Fisseha Asfaha, Fessahaye Alemseged Tesfamichael, Gizienesh Kahsay Fisseha, Kebede Haile Misgina, Meresa Gebremedhin Weldu, Negassie Berhe Welehaweria and Yosef Sibhatu Gebregiorgis

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:120

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Reducing death due to neonatal sepsis is a global health priority, however there are limited tools to facilitate early recognition and treatment. We hypothesized that measuring circulating biomarkers of endoth...

    Authors: Julie Korol Wright, Kyla Hayford, Vanessa Tran, Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria, Abdullah Baqui, Ali Manajjir, Arif Mahmud, Nazma Begum, Mashuk Siddiquee, Kevin C. Kain and Azadeh Farzin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:118

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Since early antimicrobial therapy is mandatory in septic patients, immediate diagnosis and distinction from non-infectious SIRS is essential but hampered by the similarity of symptoms between both entities. We...

    Authors: Florian Lamping, Thomas Jack, Nicole Rübsamen, Michael Sasse, Philipp Beerbaum, Rafael T. Mikolajczyk, Martin Boehne and André Karch

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:112

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Infectious diseases are the leading cause of hospital admissions in young children. Hospitalisation with an infectious disease is a recurrent event for some children. Our objective was to describe risk factors...

    Authors: Silvia Seibt, Catherine A. Gilchrist, Peter W. Reed, Emma J. Best, Anthony Harnden, Carlos A. Camargo Jr and Cameron C. Grant

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:98

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Central venous pressure (CVP) is an important factor affecting capillary blood flow, and it is associated with poor outcomes in adult septic shock patients. However, whether a similar association exists in ped...

    Authors: Seung Jun Choi, Eun-Ju Ha, Won Kyoung Jhang and Seong Jong Park

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:58

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is common and may be severe among patients with preexisting cardiac anomalies, but direct involvement of myocardial damage is not common in those patients. Additiona...

    Authors: Hiroki Miura, Fumihiko Hattori, Hidetoshi Uchida, Tadayoshi Hata, Kazuko Kudo, Masatoki Sato and Tetsushi Yoshikawa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:51

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Salmonella spondylitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection in immunocompetent children. To prevent treatment failure and neurological deficits, it needs prompt diagnosis and sufficient effort t...

    Authors: Shota Myojin, Naohiro Kamiyoshi and Masaaki Kugo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:24

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) is recognized as the etiologic agent of newborn and infant meningitis, aged up to 90 days, starting from the colonization of the maternal genital or gastrointestin...

    Authors: Victoria Bîrluţiu, Codruța Mihaela Luca and Rareș-Mircea Bîrluțiu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:21

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Paragonimiasis, particularly hepatic paragonimiasis (HP), is a type of zoonotic parasitic disease rarely encountered in infants. There have been only a few reports of HP, and no case of HP has been reported in...

    Authors: Zongrong Gong, Zhicheng Xu, Chuanfen Lei and Chaomin Wan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:190

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is an important illness that is a common cause of hearing loss in newborn infants and a major cause of disability in children. For that reason, treatment of symptoma...

    Authors: Beatriz Morillo-Gutierrez, Sheila Waugh, Ailsa Pickering, Terence Flood and Marieke Emonts

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:181

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. In Japan, rotavirus hospitalisation occurs at a rate from 2.8 to 13.7 per 1000 child-years among children age less than 5 years, and it imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system in the country. Whi...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Fujii, Atsuko Noguchi, Shinobu Miura, Haruka Ishii, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi and Tsutomu Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:156

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Neonatal sepsis is a blood stream infection which is seen in the first month of life of the neonate. Bacterial profile of neonatal septicemia is constantly changing thus, current knowledge on the patterns of b...

    Authors: Tsehaynesh G/eyesus, Feleke Moges, Setegn Eshetie, Biruk Yeshitela and Ebba Abate

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:137

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Simple parapneumonic effusion is a pleural effusion associated with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia). Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common pathogen causing parapneumonic effusions. In Morocco, the pne...

    Authors: Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Zerouali, Naima Elmdaghri and Abderrahman Abid

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:114

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Rotaviruses are the major cause of diarrhea among the infants and young children all over the world causing over 500,000 deaths and 2.4 million hospitalizations each year. In Nepal Rotavirus infection positivi...

    Authors: Subhash Dhital, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Keshab Parajuli, Niranjan Shah, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Sangita Sharma, Hari Prasad Kattel, Sundar Khadka, Sulochana Khatiwada, Narayan Parajuli and Basistha Rijal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:101

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are important viral pathogens causing respiratory tract infection (RTI) in the pediatric population. However, the clinical manifestations...

    Authors: Huey-Ling You, Shun-Jen Chang, Hong-Ren Yu, Chia-Chin Li, Chang-Han Chen and Wei-Ting Liao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:89

    Content type: Technical advance

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  44. Early growth of HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children is poorer than that of their HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) counterparts but there is little longitudinal or longer term information about the growth eff...

    Authors: Anna Rosala-Hallas, Jonathan W. Bartlett and Suzanne Filteau

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:80

    Content type: Research article

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