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Infection

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of infectious diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death among children aged below 5 years. Even though, both preventable and treatable diseases, globally there are nearly 1.7 billion cases of childhood diarrho...

    Authors: Wondwossen Abebe, Alemu Earsido, Solomon Taye, Mesfin Assefa, Adane Eyasu and Girma Godebo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:241

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients worldwide and imposes an intense pressure on health care facilities. Data on the epidemiology profiles of...

    Authors: Jiayi Chen, Pengwei Hu, Tao Zhou, Tianli Zheng, Lingxu Zhou, Chunping Jiang and Xiaofang Pei

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:216

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Human milk is fundamental for its nutritional properties and to protect newborns, but it is not sterile and can sometime transmit bacteria. Few anecdotal cases suggest that breast milk could be a possible sour...

    Authors: Giangiacomo Nicolini, Martina Borellini, Vitaliana Loizzo, Roberta Creti, Luigi Memo and Alberto Berardi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:214

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Neonatal sepsis, one of the leading causes of mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of developing countries like Nepal, is often not extensively studied. In order to decrease the morbidity and mort...

    Authors: Bhishma Pokhrel, Tapendra Koirala, Ganesh Shah, Suchita Joshi and Pinky Baral

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:208

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Hemolytic streptococcus gangrene is a life threatening invasive bacterial infection. Hemolytic streptococcus gangrene in the danger triangle of the face is too lethal to operate. A case of the confirmed hemolytic...

    Authors: Xiao-ling Jia, Janak L. Pathak, Jin-fa Tong and Ji-mei Su

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:198

    Content type: Case report

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  6. During the past decades Streptococcus pneumoniae has developed significant resistance to many classes of antimicrobial drugs. Potential risk factors for colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Authors: Maria G. Koliou, Kyriaki Andreou, Demetris Lamnisos, Giagkos Lavranos, Paris Iakovides, Christos Economou and Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:144

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Globally, childhood diarrhea is amongst the most prevalent health problems and accounts for 9% of all deaths in children under-five. In Ethiopia, childhood diarrhea is a major public health problem in which th...

    Authors: Kiflom Fisseha Asfaha, Fessahaye Alemseged Tesfamichael, Gizienesh Kahsay Fisseha, Kebede Haile Misgina, Meresa Gebremedhin Weldu, Negassie Berhe Welehaweria and Yosef Sibhatu Gebregiorgis

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:120

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Reducing death due to neonatal sepsis is a global health priority, however there are limited tools to facilitate early recognition and treatment. We hypothesized that measuring circulating biomarkers of endoth...

    Authors: Julie Korol Wright, Kyla Hayford, Vanessa Tran, Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria, Abdullah Baqui, Ali Manajjir, Arif Mahmud, Nazma Begum, Mashuk Siddiquee, Kevin C. Kain and Azadeh Farzin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:118

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Since early antimicrobial therapy is mandatory in septic patients, immediate diagnosis and distinction from non-infectious SIRS is essential but hampered by the similarity of symptoms between both entities. We...

    Authors: Florian Lamping, Thomas Jack, Nicole Rübsamen, Michael Sasse, Philipp Beerbaum, Rafael T. Mikolajczyk, Martin Boehne and André Karch

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:112

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Infectious diseases are the leading cause of hospital admissions in young children. Hospitalisation with an infectious disease is a recurrent event for some children. Our objective was to describe risk factors...

    Authors: Silvia Seibt, Catherine A. Gilchrist, Peter W. Reed, Emma J. Best, Anthony Harnden, Carlos A. Camargo Jr and Cameron C. Grant

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:98

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Central venous pressure (CVP) is an important factor affecting capillary blood flow, and it is associated with poor outcomes in adult septic shock patients. However, whether a similar association exists in ped...

    Authors: Seung Jun Choi, Eun-Ju Ha, Won Kyoung Jhang and Seong Jong Park

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:58

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is common and may be severe among patients with preexisting cardiac anomalies, but direct involvement of myocardial damage is not common in those patients. Additiona...

    Authors: Hiroki Miura, Fumihiko Hattori, Hidetoshi Uchida, Tadayoshi Hata, Kazuko Kudo, Masatoki Sato and Tetsushi Yoshikawa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:51

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Salmonella spondylitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection in immunocompetent children. To prevent treatment failure and neurological deficits, it needs prompt diagnosis and sufficient effort t...

    Authors: Shota Myojin, Naohiro Kamiyoshi and Masaaki Kugo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:24

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) is recognized as the etiologic agent of newborn and infant meningitis, aged up to 90 days, starting from the colonization of the maternal genital or gastrointestin...

    Authors: Victoria Bîrluţiu, Codruța Mihaela Luca and Rareș-Mircea Bîrluțiu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:21

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Paragonimiasis, particularly hepatic paragonimiasis (HP), is a type of zoonotic parasitic disease rarely encountered in infants. There have been only a few reports of HP, and no case of HP has been reported in...

    Authors: Zongrong Gong, Zhicheng Xu, Chuanfen Lei and Chaomin Wan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:190

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is an important illness that is a common cause of hearing loss in newborn infants and a major cause of disability in children. For that reason, treatment of symptoma...

    Authors: Beatriz Morillo-Gutierrez, Sheila Waugh, Ailsa Pickering, Terence Flood and Marieke Emonts

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:181

    Content type: Case report

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  17. In Japan, rotavirus hospitalisation occurs at a rate from 2.8 to 13.7 per 1000 child-years among children age less than 5 years, and it imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system in the country. Whi...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Fujii, Atsuko Noguchi, Shinobu Miura, Haruka Ishii, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi and Tsutomu Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:156

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Neonatal sepsis is a blood stream infection which is seen in the first month of life of the neonate. Bacterial profile of neonatal septicemia is constantly changing thus, current knowledge on the patterns of b...

    Authors: Tsehaynesh G/eyesus, Feleke Moges, Setegn Eshetie, Biruk Yeshitela and Ebba Abate

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:137

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Simple parapneumonic effusion is a pleural effusion associated with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia). Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common pathogen causing parapneumonic effusions. In Morocco, the pne...

    Authors: Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Zerouali, Naima Elmdaghri and Abderrahman Abid

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:114

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Rotaviruses are the major cause of diarrhea among the infants and young children all over the world causing over 500,000 deaths and 2.4 million hospitalizations each year. In Nepal Rotavirus infection positivi...

    Authors: Subhash Dhital, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Keshab Parajuli, Niranjan Shah, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Sangita Sharma, Hari Prasad Kattel, Sundar Khadka, Sulochana Khatiwada, Narayan Parajuli and Basistha Rijal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:101

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are important viral pathogens causing respiratory tract infection (RTI) in the pediatric population. However, the clinical manifestations...

    Authors: Huey-Ling You, Shun-Jen Chang, Hong-Ren Yu, Chia-Chin Li, Chang-Han Chen and Wei-Ting Liao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:89

    Content type: Technical advance

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  22. Early growth of HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children is poorer than that of their HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) counterparts but there is little longitudinal or longer term information about the growth eff...

    Authors: Anna Rosala-Hallas, Jonathan W. Bartlett and Suzanne Filteau

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:80

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Acute lower respiratory tract infection is the commonest disease affecting children under five worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causative pathogens. Epidemiological data su...

    Authors: Magdeldin Elgizouli, Chad Logan, Ruth Grychtol, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Alexandra Nieters and Andrea Heinzmann

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:65

    Content type: Research article

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  24. RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introdu...

    Authors: Raúl F. Velázquez, Alexandre C. Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio and Eduardo Ortega-Barria

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:14

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Progress has been made in tackling malaria however there are still over 207 million cases worldwide, the majority in children. As survival rates improve, numbers of children with long-term neurodisabling seque...

    Authors: Emmie W. Mbale, Terrie Taylor, Bernard Brabin, Macpherson Mallewa and Melissa Gladstone

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:9

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) is a prevalent upper airway infection resulting in hearing loss. The aim of this research was to determine risk factors for COME in preschool children.

    Authors: Rebecca E. Walker, Jim Bartley, David Flint, John M. D. Thompson and Edwin A. Mitchell

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:4

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an arterial ischemic stroke, rarely occurred in children accompanied with asymptomatic cerebral infarction and almost never involved in severe pneumonia related to My...

    Authors: Yunguang Bao, Xiaobing Li, Kaixuan Wang, Chan Zhao, Xiumei Ji and Mizu Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:210

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Despite differences in types of infection and causative organisms, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) targets of vancomycin therapy derived from adult studies are suggested for neonates. We aimed to identi...

    Authors: Helgi Padari, Kersti Oselin, Tõnis Tasa, Tuuli Metsvaht, Krista Lõivukene and Irja Lutsar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:206

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Qualitative and quantitative research investigating determinants of adherence to clinical guidelines (GLs) on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) are scarce. We conducted a mixed-method study aimed at invest...

    Authors: Angela Giusti, Stefania Spila Alegiani, Marta Luisa Ciofi degli Atti, Sofia Colaceci, Roberto Raschetti, Pasquale Arace, Raffaele Spiazzi and Massimiliano Raponi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:203

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Febrile seizures are common in young children. Annual peaks in incidence mirror increased respiratory virus activity during winter. Limited virological data are available using modern diagnostic techniques for...

    Authors: Joshua R. Francis, Peter Richmond, Christine Robins, Katie Lindsay, Avram Levy, Paul V. Effler, Meredith Borland and Christopher C. Blyth

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:202

    Content type: Research article

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  31. In children, the most significant cause of rhabdomyolysis or muscle breakdown is viral infection. However, there are no reports that norovirus, a gastroenteric virus that commonly infects children, specificall...

    Authors: Tomohiro Nishio, Ryoko Yonetani, Eisuke Ito, Makiko Yoneta, Yoshihiro Maruo, Tokiko Yoshida and Tohru Sugimoto

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:176

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life threatening hematological disorder associated with severe systemic inflammation caused by an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response resulting in cytokin...

    Authors: Yoshiki Kawamura, Hiroki Miura, Yuji Matsumoto, Hidetoshi Uchida, Kazuko Kudo, Tadayoshi Hata, Yoshinori Ito, Hiroshi Kimura and Tetsushi Yoshikawa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:172

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 is the most common genotype for norovirus gastroenteritis worldwide. New variants or subgenotypes are continuously emerging, thus posing a serious threat to child health.

    Authors: Pei-Lin Wang, Shih-Yen Chen, Chi-Neu Tsai, Hsun-Ching Chao, Ming-Wei Lai, Yi-Jung Chang, Chyi-Liang Chen and Cheng-Hsun Chiu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:162

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Nasal colonization with bacterial pathogens is associated with risk of invasive respiratory tract infections, but the related information for Chinese healthy children is scarce.

    Authors: Hui Pan, Binglin Cui, Yuanchun Huang, Jiacai Yang and William Ba-Thein

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:161

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Wheezing is a common symptom in early childhood. However, refractory wheezing is difficult to treat, and it may thus account for extensive use of medical resources. It is therefore important to improve our und...

    Authors: Wenjing Gu, Wujun Jiang, Xinxing Zhang, Zhengrong Chen, Yongdong Yan, Li Huang, Meijuan Wang, Xuejun Shao, Shuhui Wang and Wei Ji

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:145

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Lower respiratory tract infection is a common cause of consultation and antibiotic prescription in paediatric practice. The misuse of antibiotics is a major cause of the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacter...

    Authors: Elise Launay, Karine Levieux, Corinne Levy, François Dubos, Alain Martinot, Bénédicte Vrignaud, Flora Lepage, Robert Cohen, Emmanuel Grimprel, Matthieu Hanf, François Angoulvant and Christèle Gras-Le Guen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:126

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Little is known on outcomes after transition to adult care among adolescents with perinatal HIV infection. Though there is data from other chronic pediatric diseases suggesting increased morbidity and mortalit...

    Authors: Fatima Kakkar, Dimitri Van der Linden, Silvie Valois, Francois Maurice, Marion Onnorouille, Normand Lapointe, Hugo Soudeyns and Valerie Lamarre

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:109

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The comparison of the frequencies of bacterial and viral infections among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) admitted in distinct severity categories, in an original study, is lacking in literatu...

    Authors: Amanda C. Nascimento-Carvalho, Olli Ruuskanen and Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:105

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Fluid bolus administration is widely recommended as part of the initial treatment of paediatric sepsis, though the physiological benefits and harms are unclear. The primary aim of this study is to determine th...

    Authors: Elliot Long, Ed Oakley, Franz E. Babl and Trevor Duke

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:93

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. While biomarkers for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are beginning to emerge they typically require a highly specialized clinical laboratory. We hypothesized that subsets of commonly measured laboratory markers...

    Authors: Jeanna M. Harvey, Gordon Broderick, Alanna Bowie, Zachary M. Barnes, Ben Z. Katz, Maurice R. G. O’Gorman, Suzanne D. Vernon, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy G. Klimas and Renee Taylor

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:54

    Content type: Research article

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  41. China is one of ten countries with the highest prevalence rate of pneumococcal infections. However, there is limited serotype surveillance data for Streptococcus pneumoniae, especially from the community or rural...

    Authors: Ping Jin, Lijuan Wu, Shahin Oftadeh, Timothy Kudinha, Fanrong Kong and Qiyi Zeng

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:53

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The paediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic still progresses because of operational challenges in implementing prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMCT) programs. We assessed the kno...

    Authors: Malik Coulibaly, Elisabeth Thio, Caroline Yonaba, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Nicolas Meda, Fla Kouéta, Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Angèle Kalmogho, Mady Gansonré, Diarra Yé, Ludovic Kam and Valériane Leroy

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:33

    Content type: Research article

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  43. GSK’s varicella vaccine contains human serum albumin (HSA) which is used to stabilize the virus and prevent immunogens from adhering to the injection vial walls. However, because HSA is derived from human bloo...

    Authors: Roman Prymula, Robert Simko, Michael Povey and Andrea Kulcsar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2016 16:7

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Early childhood environmental exposures, possibly infections, may be responsible for triggering islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Yo...

    Authors: Maria Lönnrot, Kristian Lynch, Helena Elding Larsson, Åke Lernmark, Marian Rewers, William Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Olli Simell, Anette-G Ziegler, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey Krischer and Heikki Hyöty

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2015 15:24

    Content type: Research article

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