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Infection

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of infectious diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. Cytomegalovirus [CMV] is a causative agent of congenital infection worldwide and often leads to neurological deficits and hearing loss in newborns. Infants born with symptomatic congenital Cytomegalovirus infe...

    Authors: Agniswar Sarkar, Dipanwita Das, Sabbir Ansari, Rajendra Prasad Chatterjee, Lopamudra Mishra, Biswanath Basu, Sanat Kumar Ghosh, Mala Bhattacharyay and Nilanjan Chakraborty

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:291

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the weight evolution but its effect on height remains unclear. We described patterns of height evolution and identified predictors o...

    Authors: Patrinee Traisathit, Saïk Urien, Sophie Le Coeur, Sakulrat Srirojana, Noppadon Akarathum, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Sawitree Krikajornkitti, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Marc Lallemant and Gonzague Jourdain

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:287

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (CA-LRTIs) are the primary cause of hospitalization among children globally. A better understanding of the role of atypical pathogen infections in native c...

    Authors: Ai Chen, Liyao Song, Zhi Chen, Xiaomei Luo, Qing Jiang, Zhan Yang, Liangcai Hu, Jinhua He, Lifang Zhou and Hai Yu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:280

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Reactivation of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), manifesting as erythema, induration, ulceration or crust formation at a previous BCG inoculation site, is a common and highly specific feature of Kawasaki di...

    Authors: Sobana Muthuvelu, Kev Shiau-Chong Lim, Ling-Yin Huang, Shi-Tying Chin and Anand Mohan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:251

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a key role in the cellular immune system. They may be determinants of mother-to-child transmission which is the driving force in pediatric HIV infection. We intende...

    Authors: Linda Mouafo Mekue, Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Elvis Ndukong, Leaticia Yatchou, Beatrice Dambaya, Marie-Nicole Ngoufack, Joel Kadji Kameni, Jules-roger Kuiaté and Alexis Ndjolo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:249

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In the pediatric population, infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with significant morbidity and hospital costs. Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic, widely used for...

    Authors: Talita Muniz Maloni, Talita Rantin Belucci, Sandra Regina Malagutti and Guilherme Henrique Campos Furtado

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:240

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The diagnosis of pertussis in clinical practice continues to be a challenge worldwide as the symptoms are variable. We aimed to determine the prevalence of pertussis in Chinese children irrespective of cough d...

    Authors: Dan-Xia Wu, Qiang Chen, Kai-Hu Yao, Lan Li, Wei Shi, Jiang-Wei Ke, Ai-Min Wu, Peng Huang and Kun-Ling Shen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:236

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone has nine out of every 10 children living with HIV globally and monitoring in this setting remains suboptimal, even as these children grow older. With scalability of antiretrovira...

    Authors: Joseph Fokam, Maria Mercedes Santoro, Desire Takou, Anne-Esther Njom-Nlend, Paul Koki Ndombo, Nelly Kamgaing, Cedric Kamta, Andre Essiane, Samuel Martin Sosso, Alexis Ndjolo, Vittorio Colizzi and Carlo-Federico Perno

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:226

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Serious bacterial infections (SBI) are a significant cause of mortality worldwide. Parental concern and clinician’s gut feeling that there is something wrong has been associated with increased likelihood of de...

    Authors: Urzula Nora Urbane, Dita Gaidule-Logina, Dace Gardovska and Jana Pavare

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:219

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Culture tests have demonstrated that once-daily administration of amoxicillin may be effective in the treatment of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. However, culture methods do not allow accurate assess...

    Authors: Akihiro Nakao, Ken Hisata, Makoto Fujimori, Nobuaki Matsunaga, Mitsutaka Komatsu and Toshiaki Shimizu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:205

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Noma is a rare disease, which is characterized by rapid progression and a high rate of mortality; however, relatively few cases of noma infection accompanied by septic shock in children have been described. Fu...

    Authors: Lili Xu, Wanrui Wei, Xiaohua Ge, Sibei Wan, Jing Yu and Xiaodong Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:200

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Rotavirus antigenemia and RNAemia (the presence of rotavirus RNA in serum) have been commonly identified among paediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. In this study we examined the association between ...

    Authors: Maria Cleonice A. Justino, Erika A. Campos, Joana D’arc P. Mascarenhas, Luana S. Soares, Sylvia de Fátima S. Guerra, Ismari P. Furlaneto, Manoel Jaime C. Pavão Jr, Tassio S. Maciel, Fredison P. Farias, Orvácio M. Bezerra, Caio Breno G. Vinente, Rodrigo José S. Barros and Alexandre C. Linhares

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:193

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Invasive S. pyogenes diseases are uncommon, serious infections with high case fatality rates (CFR). There are few publications on this subject in the field of pediatrics. This study aimed at characterizing clinic...

    Authors: Chun-Zhen Hua, Hui Yu, Hong-Mei Xu, Lin-Hai Yang, Ai-Wei Lin, Qin Lyu, Hong-Ping Lu, Zhi-Wei Xu, Wei Gao, Xue-jun Chen, Chuan-Qing Wang and Chun-mei Jing

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:181

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Despite growing interest in universal screening for congenital CMV infection (cCMV), and data to support treatment for cases with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, there is limited regarding the optima...

    Authors: Mina Smiljkovic, Christian Renaud, Bruce Tapiero, Valérie Lamarre and Fatima Kakkar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:180

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality around the world. It remains a frequent reason for infection-related admissions to emergency units among all age groups. Follow...

    Authors: Ali Salami, Hadi Fakih, Mohamed Chakkour, Lamis Salloum, Hisham F. Bahmad and Ghassan Ghssein

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:137

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Bacterial ventriculitis is a common complication in children with temporary external ventricular drains (EVD) and the diagnosis is challenging. The present study compared the diagnostic accuracy of novel cereb...

    Authors: Mojca Groselj-Grenc, Metka Derganc, Andreja Natasa Kopitar and Maja Pavcnik

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:132

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Paediatric focal intracranial suppurative infections are uncommon but cause significant mortality and morbidity. There are no uniform guidelines regarding antibiotic treatment. This study reviewed management i...

    Authors: Fabian J. S. van der Velden, Alexandra Battersby, Lucia Pareja-Cebrian, Nicholas Ross, Stephen L. Ball and Marieke Emonts

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:130

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In Kawasaki disease (KD), a vasculitis of unknown etiology, the most serious complication is the development of coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). To date, the exact pathomechanism of KD is unknown. Both environm...

    Authors: K. Meyer, A. Volkmann, M. Hufnagel, E. Schachinger, S. Klau, J. Horstmann, R. Berner, M. Fischer, A. Lehner, N. Haas, S. Ulrich and A. Jakob

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:66

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral infection occurring mostly in infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection mostly occurs in children < 5 years of age. Severe cases, however, are...

    Authors: Ying-Fu Chen, Lan Hu, Feng Xu, Cheng-jun Liu and Jing Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:59

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  20. A new formulation of the live-attenuated varicella vaccine Varilrix (GSK) produced without human serum albumin (HSA) was developed to minimize a theoretical risk of transmission of infectious diseases. A previous...

    Authors: Saul N. Faust, Maguelone Le Roy, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Miguel Angel Rodriguez Weber, Katrina Cathie, Ulrich Behre, Jolanta Bernatoniene, Matthew D. Snape, Klaus Helm, Carlos Eduardo Medina Pech, Ouzama Henry, Carmen Baccarini, Michael Povey and Paul Gillard

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:50

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The early recognition of meningococcal disease in children is vital. During the prodrome however, meningococcal infection presents similarly to many self-limiting viral infections. This mandates a cautious app...

    Authors: Thomas Waterfield, Derek Fairley, Bronagh Blackwood, James McKenna and Michael D. Shields

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:49

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In Senegal in 2015, an estimated 4800 children were living with HIV, with 1200 receiving ARV treatment, of whom half had follow-up care in decentralized sites outside Dakar.

    Authors: Abdoul-Magib Cissé, Gabrièle Laborde-Balen, Khady Kébé-Fall, Aboubacry Dramé, Halimatou Diop, Karim Diop, FatouNiasse-Traoré, Mohamed Coulibaly, Ndeye-Ngone Have, Nicole Vidal, Safiatou Thiam, Abdoulaye S. Wade, Martine Peeters, Bernard Taverne, Philippe Msellati and Coumba Touré-Kane

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:47

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Brazil introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in 2006. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology and genotype distribution of species-A rotavirus (RVA) in Brazil, comparing the pre- and post-vac...

    Authors: Filipe A. Carvalho-Costa, Rosane M. S. de Assis, Alexandre M. Fialho, Irene T. Araújo, Marcelle F. Silva, Mariela M. Gómez, Juliana S. Andrade, Tatiana L. Rose, Tulio M. Fumian, Eduardo M. Volotão, Marize P. Miagostovich and José Paulo G. Leite

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:42

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Smartphones and associated messaging applications have become the most common means of communication among health care workers and the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability ...

    Authors: İlker Devrim, Mine Düzgöl, Ahu Kara, İlknur Çağlar, Fatma Devrim, Nuri Bayram and Hurşit Apa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:40

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Treatment failure and delay in switching to second line regimen are major concerns in the treatment of HIV infected children in a resource limited setting. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence...

    Authors: Gelila Solomon Haile and Alemseged Beyene Berha

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:37

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of most common pediatric infections. The study was designed to assess the clinical profile, common bacterial microorganisms causing UTI and their antimicrobial susceptibili...

    Authors: Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Ratna Baral, Prakash Poudel and Basudha Khanal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:36

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Blood stream infections (BSIs) cause a complex cascade of inflammatory events, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in children in Tanzania. This study was designed to delineate circulating bacteri...

    Authors: J. Seni, A. A. Mwakyoma, F. Mashuda, R. Marando, M. Ahmed, R. DeVinney, J. D. D. Pitout and S. E. Mshana

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:32

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended 2-step rapid antigen detection test (RADT) with confirmatory culture vs the point-of-care (POC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Roche cobas® Liat® ...

    Authors: Arundhati Rao, Bradley Berg, Theresa Quezada, Robert Fader, Kimberly Walker, Shaowu Tang, Ula Cowen, Dana Duncan and Joanna Sickler

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:24

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. The identification of sepsis in children varies depending on the definition used. Our purpose was to compare clinical data and outcome of atypical sepsis, manifested as having sepsis but not fulfilling the cri...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Xiaofei Lin, Hongni Yue, Niranjan Kissoon and Bo Sun

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:11

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The assessment of ear pain is challenging in young, mostly preverbal children. Our aim was to investigate whether pain scales are useful tools for parents to detect pain in their young children with the suspic...

    Authors: Johanna M. Uitti, Sanna Salanterä, Miia K. Laine, Paula A. Tähtinen and Aino Ruohola

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:392

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients contributes to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Implementing a stewardship programme to curb the problem requires inf...

    Authors: Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Gifty Sunkwa-Mills, Antoinette Bediako-Bowan, Christiana Akufo, Stephanie Bjerrum, Enid Owusu, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Jorgen Anders Lindholm Kurtzhals and Mercy Jemima Newman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:391

    Content type: Research article

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  32. There have been few studies focused on the prevalence, bacterial etiology, antibiotic resistance, and genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in children with acute otitis media (AOM) in China.

    Authors: Yan Ling Ding, Jinjian Fu, Jichang Chen, Sheng Fu Mo, Shaolin Xu, Nan Lin, Peixu Qin and Eric McGrath

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:388

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Vaccination is still one of the most important methods to control and prevent childhood infections including diphtheria and pertussis. This study evaluated the level of diphtheria (DT) and pertussis (PT)-relat...

    Authors: Qinghong Meng, Lijun Li, Wei Shi, Qing Wang, Mingjie Ding, Yanqin Liu, Xiang Ma and Kaihu Yao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:383

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) that asymptomatically colonizing the recto-vaginal area of women is the most important cause of neonatal colonization. There is paucity of evidence about newborn colonization with GBS ...

    Authors: Mucheye Gizachew, Moges Tiruneh, Feleke Moges, Mulat Adefris, Zemene Tigabu and Belay Tessema

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:378

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection leads to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and neurodevelopmental delays. However, the long-term outcomes of cCMV infection with severe neurological manifestations i...

    Authors: Eisuke Suganuma, Akira Oka, Hideaki Sakata, Nodoka Adachi, Satoshi Asanuma, Eiji Oguma, Akira Yamaguchi, Mihoko Furuichi, Yoji Uejima, Satoshi Sato, Tadamasa Takano, Yutaka Kawano, Risa Tanaka, Takashi Arai and Tsutomu Oh-Ishi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:369

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been introduced in the infant immunisation programmes in many countries to reduce the rate of fatal pneumococcal infections. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Con...

    Authors: Archippe M. Birindwa, Matilda Emgård, Rickard Nordén, Ebba Samuelsson, Shadi Geravandi, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Balthazar Muhigirwa, Théophile Kashosi, Eric Munguakonkwa, Jeanière T. Manegabe, Didace Cibicabene, Lambert Morisho, Benjamin Mwambanyi, Jacques Mirindi, Nadine Kabeza, Magnus Lindh…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:361

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive status disclosure is an essential component of Pediatric care and long term disease management. Children have a right to know their HIV diagnosis result. However, Pe...

    Authors: Bikila Lencha, Gemehu Ameya, Zanebe Minda, Feyissa Lamessa and Jiregna Darega

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:356

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Bacterial meningitis is a paediatric emergency with high mortality and morbidity requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Clinically, it is often difficult to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial...

    Authors: Shipra Chaudhary, Nisha Keshary Bhatta, Madhab Lamsal, Rajendra Kumar Chaudhari and Basudha Khanal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:342

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis globally in children under 5 years of age and is responsible for approximately 5% of all child deaths yearly. Rotavirus vaccination is cons...

    Authors: Catherine Muendo, Ahmed Laving, Rashmi Kumar, Boniface Osano, Thaddaeus Egondi and Pamela Njuguna

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:323

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is one of the major agents to cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks globally. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical manifestations ...

    Authors: Jie Li, Rong Zhu, Da Huo, Yiwei Du, Yuxiang Yan, Zhichao Liang, Yanxia Luo, Yang Yang, Lei Jia, Lijuan Chen, Quanyi Wang and Yan He

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:277

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Liver dysfunction is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis of patients with sepsis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of continuous hemofiltration in patients with bacterial sepsis compl...

    Authors: Yun Cui, Xi Xiong, Fei Wang, Yuqian Ren, Chunxia Wang and Yucai Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:269

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The mortality rate due to severe sepsis is approximately 30–60%. Sepsis readily progresses to septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction, representing a significant problem in the pediatric intensive care uni...

    Authors: Hai peng Yan, Miao Li, Xiu lan Lu, Yi min Zhu, Wen-xian Ou-yang, Zheng hui Xiao, Jun Qiu and Shuang jie Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:267

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Universal HIV testing and treatment of infected children remain challenging in resource-limited settings (RLS), leading to undiagnosed children/adolescents and limited access to pediatric antiretroviral therap...

    Authors: Calixte Ida Penda, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Daniele Kedy Koum, Joseph Fokam, Cedric Anatole Zambo Meyong, Sandrine Talla and Paul Koki Ndombo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2018 18:259

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: