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Infection

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of infectious diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are particularly susceptible to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). NICUs in low- and middle income countries face additional challenges to HAI preventio...

    Authors: Carter Cowden, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Davidson H. Hamer, Susan E. Coffin, Monica L. Kapasa, Sylvia Machona and Julia E. Szymczak

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:432

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Central and peripheral nervous system symptoms and complications are being increasingly recognized among individuals with pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infections, but actual detection of the virus or its RNA in the cen...

    Authors: Bishara J. Freij, Bassam M. Gebara, Rabail Tariq, Ay-Ming Wang, John Gibson, Nidal El-Wiher, Graham Krasan, Paul M. Patek, Kelly A. Levasseur, Mitual Amin and Joseph M. Fullmer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:429

    Content type: Case report

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  3. To explore the relationship between the pathological changes of the colon, terminal ileum, lung, liver and kidney, and the changes of Bax, PCNA and PAF in a rat model of NEC.

    Authors: Fu-Sheng Wang, Meng-Lu Yu, Wei-Zhong Li, Kai Hong, Chen-Bin Xu and Guang-Huan Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:418

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) precipitated by various bacterial and viral infections. Dengue infection is no exception for this and can be a precipitat...

    Authors: V. Thadchanamoorthy and Kavinda Dayasiri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:403

    Content type: Case report

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  5. The current paradigm for treating toddler’s diarrhea comprises dietary modification and fluid restriction. Previous studies show that probiotics and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 blockers could control diar...

    Authors: Samuel N. Uwaezuoke, Ikenna K. Ndu, Chizoma I. Eneh, Chikere A. Anusiem and Adaeze C. Ayuk

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:380

    Content type: Research article

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  6. There is a need for an easy and sensitive method for screening of urinary tract infections in young children. We set out to test whether a novel diaper-embedded urine test device is feasible and reliable in sc...

    Authors: Niko Paalanne, Lotta Wikstedt, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko and Terhi Tapiainen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:378

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Describe the outcome of adenovirus pneumonia in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a 3-year period, to identify the risk factors that may be associated with worse outcome.

    Authors: Jingyi Shi, Yiping Zhou, Fei Wang, Chunxia Wang, Huijie Miao, Ting Sun, Yijun Shan, Yun Cui and Yucai Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:375

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Evidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in neonates is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical symptoms, pathogens, possible transmission routes, and prognosis of neonatal HFMD in ...

    Authors: Shanshan Xu, Huajun Li, Peng Qiao, Guofeng Xu, Dongying Zhao, Xiaoyan Lin, Yu Qin, Huiju Yu, Xi Zhang, Wanju Zhang and Lisu Huang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:364

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Neurological complications due to reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are very uncommon in immunocompetent patients. Generally a vesicular rash is present on one or more dermatomes, preceding or follo...

    Authors: Silvia Ciancia, Antonella Crisafi, Ilaria Fontana, Alessandro De Fanti, Sergio Amarri and Lorenzo Iughetti

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:348

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Dried blood spots (DBS) have been proposed as potentially tool for detecting invasive bacterial diseases.

    Authors: Fabiana C. Pimenta, Benild Moiane, Fernanda C. Lessa, Anne-Kathryn L. Venero, Iaci Moura, Shanda Larson, Sergio Massora, Alberto Chaúque, Nelson Tembe, Helio Mucavele, Jennifer R. Verani, Cynthia G. Whitney, Betuel Sigaúque and Maria G. S. Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:326

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Persistent and chronic diarrhea is difficult to treat, and infection is still the main cause. In this study, we investigate the application value of xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (xTAG GPP) multiplex PC...

    Authors: Chunli Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Mengshu Zhu, Hanjun Yin, Jiamei Tang, Yan Huang, Bixia Zheng, Yu Jin and Zhifeng Liu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:309

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Histoplasmosis is a rare infectious condition with mainly pulmonary involvement. Disseminated histoplasmosis may occur in immunocompromised condition. It can present in different ways but jaundice and ascites ...

    Authors: Luthfun Nahar, Md Benzamin, Naznin Sarkar, Urmi Roy, Kamrun Nahar, Md Rukunuzzaman, Khan Lamia Nahid, A. S. M. Bazlul Karim and Bishnu Pada Dey

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:284

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Pneumonia is defined as an acute inflammation of the Lungs’ parenchymal structure. It is a major public health problem and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children especially in deve...

    Authors: Biruk Beletew, Melaku Bimerew, Ayelign Mengesha, Mesfin Wudu and Molla Azmeraw

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:254

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The relative contribution of viruses to central nervous system (CNS) infections in young infants is not clear. For viral CNS infections, there are limited data on features that suggest HSV etiology or on predi...

    Authors: Dara Petel, Michelle Barton, Christian Renaud, Lynda Ouchenir, Jason Brophy, Jennifer Bowes, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Jane McDonald, Andrée-Anne Boisvert, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts and Joan L. Robinson

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Recently, the World Health Organization has declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. So far, however, limited data are available for childre...

    Authors: Yang Li, Jianghui Cao, Xiaolong Zhang, Guangzhi Liu, Xiaxia Wu and Baolin Wu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:227

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Maternal antibodies are key components of the protective responses of infants who are unable to produce their own IgG until 6 months of life. There is evidence that HIV-exposed uninfected children (HEU) have I...

    Authors: Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Stefano Orlando, Fausto Ciccacci, Haswell Jere, Richard Luhanga, Jean Baptiste Sagno, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi and Marina Giuliano

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:181

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Diagnostic evaluation of febrile young infants is challenging. Empirical antimicrobial treatment is therefore common practice in this setting despite high percentage of causative viral infections. The objectiv...

    Authors: Paolo Paioni, Florence Barbey, Christa Relly, Patrick Meyer Sauteur and Christoph Berger

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:166

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Group B streptococcus (GBS)-induced invasive disease is a major cause of illness and death among infants aged under 90 days in China; however, invasive GBS infection remains unknown in China. We aimed to describe...

    Authors: Yao Zhu, Jiayin Wu, Xinyi Zheng, Dengli Liu, Liping Xu, Dongmei Chen, Wenying Qiu, Zhongling Huang, Ronghua Zhong, Ling Chen, Mingyuan He, Simin Ma, Yayin Lin, Xinzhu Lin and Chao Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:146

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Tocilizumab (TCZ), a kind of biological agent against both membrane and soluble IL-6 receptor, i...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Congcong Liu, Lishuang Guo and Sirui Yang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:126

    Content type: Case report

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  20. It is not yet known how antibiotics may affect Serious Bacterial Infections (SBI). Our aim is to describe the presentation, management, and serious bacterial infections (SBI) of febrile children on or off anti...

    Authors: R. D. Sawaya, T. El Zahran, S. Mrad, C. Abdul Massih, S. Shaya, M. Makki, H. Tamim and M. Majdalani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:117

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Respiratory infections are one of three leading causes of childhood mortality, and worldwide increase and recent plateau in childhood asthma has been reported. However, data on trends of respiratory diseases o...

    Authors: Peng Shi, Xiaobo Zhang, Lijuan Liu, Liangfeng Tang, Jing Li, Libo Wang, Albert M. Li, Yang Cao, Hong Xu and Guoying Huang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:115

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Abacavir (ABC) and Zidovudine (AZT) based regimens are the preferred first line nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTIs) backbones being widely utilized for managing HIV infection in children. However, there i...

    Authors: Teshale Ayele Mega, Firehiwot Belayneh Usamo and Getandale Zeleke Negera

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:99

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Acute respiratory infection is manifested by cough accompanied by short rapid breathing which may be associated with death especially when there are other co-morbidities. From an estimated 5.4 million children...

    Authors: Henok Dagne, Zewudu Andualem, Baye Dagnew and Asefa Adimasu Taddese

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:93

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Diarrhea, particularly of enteric bacterial pathogen, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Despite the high prevalence of diarrheal disease among under-five children, antibiotic resist...

    Authors: Wagi Tosisa, Adane Mihret, Asnake Ararsa, Tadesse Eguale and Tamrat Abebe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:91

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Diarrhoea, although easily curable, is a global cause of death for a half million children every year. Rotavirus and Campylobacter are the most common etiological agents of diarrhoea in children less than 5 years...

    Authors: Vishnu Bhattarai, Saroj Sharma, Komal Raj Rijal and Megha Raj Banjara

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Prompt initiation of empiric therapy is common practice in case of suspected meningitis or encephalitis. However, in children the most common pathogens are viruses that usually do not require and are not cover...

    Authors: Alexandra Hagen, Anna Eichinger, Melanie Meyer-Buehn, Tilmann Schober and Johannes Huebner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The peritonitis rate among children treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has not been widely reported in Saudi Arabia. The study aim was to estimate the peritonitis rate per patient-year and investigate the f...

    Authors: Khamisa Al Mokali, Zahra Al Sannaa, Faten Al Mutairi and Anwar E. Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:42

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Fever in childhood is a common acute presentation requiring clinical triage to identify the few children who have serious underlying infection. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to assist...

    Authors: Joanna Holt, Leslie White, Gavin R. Wheaton, Helena Williams, Shefali Jani, Gaston Arnolda, Hsuen P. Ting, Peter D. Hibbert and Jeffrey Braithwaite

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:16

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an infrequent but life-threatening disease due to excessive immune activation. Secondary HLH can be triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignant disea...

    Authors: Mitsuru Tsuge, Machiko Miyamoto, Reiji Miyawaki, Yoichi Kondo and Hirokazu Tsukahara

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:15

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  30. Measles is a recurrent health problem in both advanced and developed countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends anti-measles immunoglobulin M (Ig M) as the standard method of detecting the virus...

    Authors: Dominicus Husada, Kusdwijono, Dwiyanti Puspitasari, Leny Kartina, Parwati Setiono Basuki and Ismoedijanto

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a serious, life-threatening infectious disease of the central nervous system that often occurs in young children. The most common severe to moderate sequelae following BM are senso...

    Authors: O. El Tahir, R. C. J. de Jonge, S. Ouburg, S. A. Morré and A. M. van Furth

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:519

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  32. Helicobacter pylori infection is known to alter growth-related hormones and affect growth in young children. However, it is still unknown whether maternal H. pylori infection has an impact on the levels of cord b...

    Authors: Fu-Ping Lai, Yi-Fang Tu, Bor-Shyang Sheu and Yao-Jong Yang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:501

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Globally pneumonia is the leading cause of under-five child mortality. Several risk factors for pneumonia mortality have been identified, including delay in seeking health care. For successful reduction of del...

    Authors: Getasew Mulat Bantie, Zemene Meseret, Melkamu Bedimo and Abebayehu Bitew

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:482

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Passive transferred antibodies to the fetus play an essential role on protecting neonates and young infants until infant vaccination is more efficacious. However, very little is known about the discrepancy of ...

    Authors: Qinghong Meng, Qinghui Qian, Li Li, Dandan Liu, Wei Gao, Lin Yuan and Kaihu Yao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:480

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. The global burden of seasonal influenza on medical care has been one of the greatest in the pediatric population. The attention drawn to influenza B was relatively low compared to influenza A, probably because...

    Authors: Yu Na Oh, San Kim, Young Bae Choi, Sung Il Woo, Youn-Soo Hahn and Joon Kee Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:472

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequently identified pathogen in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection. Fatal cases have mainly been reported during the first 6 months of life or...

    Authors: A. Gavotto, A. Ousselin, O. Pidoux, P. Cathala, V. Costes-Martineau, B. Rivière, J. L. Pasquié, P. Amedro, C. Rambaud and G. Cambonie

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:462

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. There are scant data on the prevalence and clinical course of pertussis disease among infants with pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries. While pertussis vaccination coverage is high (≥90%) among infan...

    Authors: Bahaa Abu-Raya, David M. Goldfarb, Marek Smieja, Kathy Luinstra, Melissa Richard-Greenblatt, Andrew P. Steenhoff, Kristen A. Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Coleen K. Cunningham, Samir S. Shah, Mohamed Zaakir Patel, Matthew S. Kelly and Manish Sadarangani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:444

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Intestinal parasitic infestations triggered considerable gastrointestinal morbidity, malnutrition, and mortality worldwide. In particular, young children in developing countries affected most. Helminthiasis in...

    Authors: Mesfin Wudu Kassaw, Ayele Mamo Abebe, Kenean Getaneh Tlaye, Alemu Birara Zemariam and Biruk Beletew Abate

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:437

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Unnecessary antibiotic prescription to patients with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) has led to the increase in antibiotics resistant bacteria rates. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic accur...

    Authors: Seyed Ali Safizadeh Shabestari, Zainab A. Malik and Fadil Y. A. Al-Najjar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:429

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The use of oral (PO) antibiotics following a course of certain intravenous (IV) antibiotics is proposed in order to avoid the complications of IV medications and to decrease the cost. However, the efficacy and...

    Authors: Chuan Wang, Yanan Li and Yi Ji

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:407

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Otitis Media (OM) is the most common disease of childhood. Twenty thousand people die each year from otitis media. It is an important cause of preventable hearing loss, affects children's intellectual performa...

    Authors: Bereket Tadesse, Techalew Shimelis and Mesfin Worku

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:398

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. The global HIV burden among adolescents ages 10–19 is growing. This population concurrently confronts the multifaceted challenges of adolescence and living with HIV. With the goal of informing future intervent...

    Authors: Carly A. Rodriguez, Emiliano Valle, Jerome Galea, Milagros Wong, Lenka Kolevic, Maribel Muñoz, Leonid Lecca and Molly F. Franke

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:396

    Content type: Research article

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  43. An increased number of congenital Zika virus infections with neurological and musculoskeletal malformations have been diagnosed worldwide, however, there are still several gaps in the knowledge about this infe...

    Authors: Cláudia de Paula Guimarães, Myrella Silveira Macedo, Maria Alves Barbosa, Solomar Martins Marques, Paulo Sucasas Costa and Ênio Chaves de Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:389

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Intestinal parasitic infection is diversified illness and diseases caused millions morbidity among under-five children lives in developing countries particularly vulnerable rural communities. Deworming coverag...

    Authors: Eshetu Gadisa and Kefiyalew Jote

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:385

    Content type: Research article

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