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Infection

This section considers studies regarding the epidemiology, pathology, prevention, and control of infectious diseases in children and adolescents.

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  1. In high tuberculosis (TB) burden settings, there is growing evidence that TB is common in children with pneumonia, the leading cause of death in children under 5 years worldwide. The current WHO standard of ca...

    Authors: Aurélia Vessière, Hélène Font, Delphine Gabillard, Laurence Adonis-Koffi, Laurence Borand, Chishala Chabala, Celso Khosa, Sandra Mavale, Raoul Moh, Veronica Mulenga, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpere, Jean-Voisin Taguebue, Mao Tan Eang, Christophe Delacourt, James A. Seddon, Manon Lounnas…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:136

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Toxoplasmosis resulting from infection with the Toxoplasma parasite has become an endemic disease worldwide. Recently, a few studies have reported a high prevalence of Toxoplasmosis infections among Saudi Arabian...

    Authors: Jamila S. Al Malki, Nahed Ahmed Hussien and Fuad Al Malki

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Aspergillus infection is more common among premature infants in neonatal intensive care units, who have decreased qualitative immune defenses and need various invasive treatment procedures. It is rare in norma...

    Authors: Yanli Wang, Wenjing Chen, Wenshen Wu, Dongling Yu, Huiheng Yan and Xiuzhen Ye

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:118

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Aboriginal children living in Australian remote communities are at high risk of early and persistent otitis media, hearing loss, and social disadvantage. Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus infl...

    Authors: Amanda Jane Leach, Edward Kim Mulholland, Mathuram Santosham, Paul John Torzillo, Peter McIntyre, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Nicole Wilson, Beth Arrowsmith, Jemima Beissbarth, Mark D. Chatfield, Victor M. Oguoma and Peter Stanley Morris

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:117

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Fever in infants under 90 days of age is highly likely to be caused by a severe bacterial infection (SBI) and it accounts for a large number of patients visiting the pediatric emergency room. In order to predi...

    Authors: Jun-Sung Park, Young-Hoon Byun, Jeong-Yong Lee, Jong Seung Lee, Jeong-Min Ryu and Seung Jun Choi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The prophylactic use of anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody (palivizumab) for severe RSV infection is not approved in Japan in specified groups of infants with neuromuscular diseases or other rare ...

    Authors: Masaaki Mori, Shinichi Watabe, Tomoaki Taguchi, Hisaya Hasegawa, Mika Ishige, Naoyuki Tanuma, Akihiro Hirakawa, Ryuji Koike and Satoshi Kusuda

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:106

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Due to the lack of a sensitive, specific and rapid detection method, aetiological diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae, MP) is a constantly challenging issue. This retrospective s...

    Authors: Mingyu Tang, Dong Wang, Xing Tong, Yufen Wu, Jing Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yong Yin and Qing Cao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Although the World Health Organization has recommended the diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in child household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases, the national progr...

    Authors: Roxana Mansour Ghanaie, Abdollah Karimi, Leila Azimi, Seddon James, Mahshid Nasehi, Abolfazl Panahi Mishkar, Mahnaz Sheikhi, Fatemeh Fallah, Sedigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei and Seyedeh Mahsan Hoseini-Alfatemi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The incidence of pertussis shows an increasing trend in recent years, but some clinicians often lack sufficient understanding of the clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe pertussis, and more eff...

    Authors: Caiying Wang, Huimin Zhang, Yanlan Zhang, Lin Xu, Min Miao, Hongling Yang, Yuhuan Liu, Shuxin He and Lin Pang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in children is hindered by variable sensitivity of clinical criteria and rapid Strep A tests (SAT), resulting in reliance on throat cultures as the gold standa...

    Authors: Salama Bin Hendi, Zainab A. Malik, Amar Hassan Khamis and Fadil Y. A. Al-Najjar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Syringomyelia secondary to tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is rarely reported, and is usually a late complication. Acute development of syringomyelia following TBM is an exceedingly rare condition with only a few...

    Authors: Ningyuan Wen, Fumin Zhao, Yu Zhu, Fenglin Jia, Chaomin Wan and Yang Wen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:36

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Because of the absence of a specific diagnostic test and pathognomonic clinical features, physicians must rely on the presence of specific clinical criteria and laboratory data that support the diagnosis of KD...

    Authors: Woo Young Park, Sang Yun Lee, Gi Beom Kim, Mi Kyoung Song, Hye Won Kwon, Eun Jung Bae, Eun hwa Choi and June Dong Park

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:25

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is defined by the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on culture from samples obtained from a normally sterile site. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been developed...

    Authors: Tomohiro Hirade, Ai Harada, Daisuke Koike, Yasuhiro Abe, Tsuyoshi Higuchi, Fumihide Kato, Bin Chang and Akiyoshi Nariai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:8

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Whilst much attention is given to eliminating HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), little has been done to ensure the same for hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. The introduction of HBV immunization at ...

    Authors: Cynthia Tamandjou Tchuem, Mark Fredric Cotton, Etienne Nel, Richard Tedder, Wolfgang Preiser, Avy Violari, Raziya Bobat, Laura Hovind, Lisa Aaron, Grace Montepiedra, Charles Mitchell and Monique Ingrid Andersson

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:563

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by a series of immune dysregulations, of which interferon hyperreactivity is important, as it is responsible for surging antiviral responses and the possible initiation of a...

    Authors: Ahmad Kantar, Angelo Mazza, Ezio Bonanomi, Marta Odoni, Manuela Seminara, Ilaria Dalla Verde, Camillo Lovati, Stefania Bolognini and Lorenzo D’Antiga

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:561

    Content type: Case report

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  16. In Uganda, childhood anemia remains a health challenge and is associated with malaria infection as well as iron deficiency. Iron deficiency is intertwined with nutritional status, age and other comorbidities i...

    Authors: Ambrose Mukisa, Denis Kasozi, Claire Aguttu, Peter C. Vuzi and Joseph Kyambadde

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:521

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Although symptoms and signs of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) in children are milder than adults, there are reports of more severe cases which were defined as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (...

    Authors: Leila Shahbaznejad, Mohammad Reza Navaeifar, Ali Abbaskhanian, Fatemeh Hosseinzadeh, Golnar Rahimzadeh and Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:513

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The monoclonal antibody, palivizumab is licensed for use in high-risk infants to prevent severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The level of its use and compliance with current jurisdictio...

    Authors: Ruomei Xu, Parveen Fathima, Tobias Strunk, Nicholas de Klerk, Thomas L. Snelling, Peter C. Richmond, Anthony D. Keil and Hannah C. Moore

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:490

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) have called for research into the role of biomarkers, and specifically procalcitonin (PCT), for the early diagnosis of serious bacterial infections ...

    Authors: Thomas Waterfield, Julie-Ann Maney, Mark D Lyttle, James P McKenna, Damian Roland, Michael Corr, Bethany Patenall, Michael D Shields, Kerry Woolfall and Derek Fairley

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:487

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an idiopathic systemic vasculitis that predominantly damages coronary arteries in children. Various pathogens have been investigated as triggers for KD, but no definitive causative pat...

    Authors: Yuka Torii, Kazuhiro Horiba, Satoshi Hayano, Taichi Kato, Takako Suzuki, Jun-ichi Kawada, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Seiji Kojima, Yusuke Okuno, Tomoo Ogi and Yoshinori Ito

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:482

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Little is known about physical development of children with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). This study aims to evaluate the anthropometric characteristics of children with CZS up to 12 months.

    Authors: Rita de Cássia Oliveira de Carvalho-Sauer, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Costa, Enny S. Paixão, Natanael de Jesus Silva, Florisneide Rodrigues Barreto and Maria Gloria Teixeira

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:479

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Renal abscess in children is a rare and severe form of infectious kidney disease that is responsible for several serious complications. In this report, we describe a previously healthy 5-year-old girl with a r...

    Authors: Hiroki Kitaoka, Jun Inatomi, Hayato Chikai, Keiko Watanabe, Tadayuki Kumagai, Ayako Masui and Nobutaka Shimizu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:461

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  23. The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR) has become a major public health concern worldwide. This resistance is caused by enzymes-mediated genes (i.e., extended spectrum bet...

    Authors: René Dembélé, Ali Konaté, Oumar Traoré, Wendpoulomdé A. D. Kaboré, Issiaka Soulama, Assèta Kagambèga, Alfred S. Traoré, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Awa Aidara-Kane, Amy Gassama-Sow and Nicolas Barro

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:459

    Content type: Research article

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  24. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare inherited X-linked primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). One such disease, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency, is characterized by...

    Authors: Ru-Yue Chen, Xiao-Zhong Li, Qiang Lin, Yun Zhu, Yun-Yan Shen, Qin-Ying Xu, Xue-Ming Zhu, Zhen-Jiang Bai and Ying Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:456

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are particularly susceptible to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). NICUs in low- and middle income countries face additional challenges to HAI preventio...

    Authors: Carter Cowden, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Davidson H. Hamer, Susan E. Coffin, Monica L. Kapasa, Sylvia Machona and Julia E. Szymczak

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:432

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Central and peripheral nervous system symptoms and complications are being increasingly recognized among individuals with pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infections, but actual detection of the virus or its RNA in the cen...

    Authors: Bishara J. Freij, Bassam M. Gebara, Rabail Tariq, Ay-Ming Wang, John Gibson, Nidal El-Wiher, Graham Krasan, Paul M. Patek, Kelly A. Levasseur, Mitual Amin and Joseph M. Fullmer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:429

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. To explore the relationship between the pathological changes of the colon, terminal ileum, lung, liver and kidney, and the changes of Bax, PCNA and PAF in a rat model of NEC.

    Authors: Fu-Sheng Wang, Meng-Lu Yu, Wei-Zhong Li, Kai Hong, Chen-Bin Xu and Guang-Huan Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:418

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) precipitated by various bacterial and viral infections. Dengue infection is no exception for this and can be a precipitat...

    Authors: V. Thadchanamoorthy and Kavinda Dayasiri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:403

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. The current paradigm for treating toddler’s diarrhea comprises dietary modification and fluid restriction. Previous studies show that probiotics and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 blockers could control diar...

    Authors: Samuel N. Uwaezuoke, Ikenna K. Ndu, Chizoma I. Eneh, Chikere A. Anusiem and Adaeze C. Ayuk

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:380

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. There is a need for an easy and sensitive method for screening of urinary tract infections in young children. We set out to test whether a novel diaper-embedded urine test device is feasible and reliable in sc...

    Authors: Niko Paalanne, Lotta Wikstedt, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko and Terhi Tapiainen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:378

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Describe the outcome of adenovirus pneumonia in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a 3-year period, to identify the risk factors that may be associated with worse outcome.

    Authors: Jingyi Shi, Yiping Zhou, Fei Wang, Chunxia Wang, Huijie Miao, Ting Sun, Yijun Shan, Yun Cui and Yucai Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:375

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Evidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in neonates is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical symptoms, pathogens, possible transmission routes, and prognosis of neonatal HFMD in ...

    Authors: Shanshan Xu, Huajun Li, Peng Qiao, Guofeng Xu, Dongying Zhao, Xiaoyan Lin, Yu Qin, Huiju Yu, Xi Zhang, Wanju Zhang and Lisu Huang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:364

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Neurological complications due to reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are very uncommon in immunocompetent patients. Generally a vesicular rash is present on one or more dermatomes, preceding or follo...

    Authors: Silvia Ciancia, Antonella Crisafi, Ilaria Fontana, Alessandro De Fanti, Sergio Amarri and Lorenzo Iughetti

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:348

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  34. Dried blood spots (DBS) have been proposed as potentially tool for detecting invasive bacterial diseases.

    Authors: Fabiana C. Pimenta, Benild Moiane, Fernanda C. Lessa, Anne-Kathryn L. Venero, Iaci Moura, Shanda Larson, Sergio Massora, Alberto Chaúque, Nelson Tembe, Helio Mucavele, Jennifer R. Verani, Cynthia G. Whitney, Betuel Sigaúque and Maria G. S. Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:326

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Persistent and chronic diarrhea is difficult to treat, and infection is still the main cause. In this study, we investigate the application value of xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (xTAG GPP) multiplex PC...

    Authors: Chunli Wang, Xiaoying Zhou, Mengshu Zhu, Hanjun Yin, Jiamei Tang, Yan Huang, Bixia Zheng, Yu Jin and Zhifeng Liu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:309

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Histoplasmosis is a rare infectious condition with mainly pulmonary involvement. Disseminated histoplasmosis may occur in immunocompromised condition. It can present in different ways but jaundice and ascites ...

    Authors: Luthfun Nahar, Md Benzamin, Naznin Sarkar, Urmi Roy, Kamrun Nahar, Md Rukunuzzaman, Khan Lamia Nahid, A. S. M. Bazlul Karim and Bishnu Pada Dey

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:284

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. Pneumonia is defined as an acute inflammation of the Lungs’ parenchymal structure. It is a major public health problem and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children especially in deve...

    Authors: Biruk Beletew, Melaku Bimerew, Ayelign Mengesha, Mesfin Wudu and Molla Azmeraw

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:254

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. The relative contribution of viruses to central nervous system (CNS) infections in young infants is not clear. For viral CNS infections, there are limited data on features that suggest HSV etiology or on predi...

    Authors: Dara Petel, Michelle Barton, Christian Renaud, Lynda Ouchenir, Jason Brophy, Jennifer Bowes, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Jane McDonald, Andrée-Anne Boisvert, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts and Joan L. Robinson

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Recently, the World Health Organization has declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. So far, however, limited data are available for childre...

    Authors: Yang Li, Jianghui Cao, Xiaolong Zhang, Guangzhi Liu, Xiaxia Wu and Baolin Wu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:227

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Maternal antibodies are key components of the protective responses of infants who are unable to produce their own IgG until 6 months of life. There is evidence that HIV-exposed uninfected children (HEU) have I...

    Authors: Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Stefano Orlando, Fausto Ciccacci, Haswell Jere, Richard Luhanga, Jean Baptiste Sagno, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi and Marina Giuliano

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:181

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Diagnostic evaluation of febrile young infants is challenging. Empirical antimicrobial treatment is therefore common practice in this setting despite high percentage of causative viral infections. The objectiv...

    Authors: Paolo Paioni, Florence Barbey, Christa Relly, Patrick Meyer Sauteur and Christoph Berger

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:166

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Group B streptococcus (GBS)-induced invasive disease is a major cause of illness and death among infants aged under 90 days in China; however, invasive GBS infection remains unknown in China. We aimed to describe...

    Authors: Yao Zhu, Jiayin Wu, Xinyi Zheng, Dengli Liu, Liping Xu, Dongmei Chen, Wenying Qiu, Zhongling Huang, Ronghua Zhong, Ling Chen, Mingyuan He, Simin Ma, Yayin Lin, Xinzhu Lin and Chao Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:146

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Tocilizumab (TCZ), a kind of biological agent against both membrane and soluble IL-6 receptor, i...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Congcong Liu, Lishuang Guo and Sirui Yang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:126

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. It is not yet known how antibiotics may affect Serious Bacterial Infections (SBI). Our aim is to describe the presentation, management, and serious bacterial infections (SBI) of febrile children on or off anti...

    Authors: R. D. Sawaya, T. El Zahran, S. Mrad, C. Abdul Massih, S. Shaya, M. Makki, H. Tamim and M. Majdalani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:117

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Respiratory infections are one of three leading causes of childhood mortality, and worldwide increase and recent plateau in childhood asthma has been reported. However, data on trends of respiratory diseases o...

    Authors: Peng Shi, Xiaobo Zhang, Lijuan Liu, Liangfeng Tang, Jing Li, Libo Wang, Albert M. Li, Yang Cao, Hong Xu and Guoying Huang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:115

    Content type: Research article

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