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Table 2 NBAS results in all items

From: Neurobehavioural challenges experienced by HIV exposed infants: a study in South Africa

Item HIV exposure
Mean(SD)
two sample t-test significance
  Exposed (n = 80) Unexposed (n = 52) Significance
p ≤ 0.05
BEHAVIOURAL ITEMS
 HABITUATION
 Administered in states 1 to 3. Evaluation of response decrement to external stimulation of light, sound and touch. A measure of how well an infant protects their sleep
  Response dec.to light n = 63
4.92(2.29)
n = 38
4.92(2.52)
p = 1.00
  Response dec.to rattle n = 59
4.98(2.52)
n = 32
6.38(2.18)
p = 0.01*
  Response dec.to bell n = 49
5.14(2.81)
n = 29
7.00(2.05)
p < 0.01*
  Response dec.to foot probe n = 45
5.56(2.06)
n = 28
6.29(1.86)
p = 0.13
Note: Where n value is less than 80 in the exposed infant group, and less than 52 in the unexposed infant group, it is due to the infant being in an awake state when the assessment commenced or waking up during administration of the habituation package
 SOCIAL INTERACTIVE
 Administered in a quiet alert state (state 4).Evaluation of the infant’s orientation to and interaction with animate (person) and inanimate (rattle and ball) visual and auditory stimuli
  Animate Visual n = 78
2.53(2.00)
3.00(1.89) p = 0.18
  Animate Visual & auditory n = 78
2.69(2.01)
3.42(2.02) p = 0.05*#
  Inanimate visual n = 78
2.03(1.71)
3.02(2.04) p < 0.01*#
  Inanimate visual & auditory n = 78
2.41(1.59)
2.77(2.03) p = 0.26#
  Inanimate auditory n = 78
2.59(1.36)
3.67(2.05) p < 0.01*@
  Animate auditory n = 78
3.28(1.76)
4.02(2.16) p = 0.03*#
  Alertness n = 78
2.81(1.30)
4.21(1.94) p < 0.01*@
Note: Where n value is less than 80 in the exposed infant group, and less than 52 in the unexposed infant group, it is due to the infant not being able to reach and maintain a state of arousal where the social interactive package could be administered. This may be due to the infant being too sleepy, crying and needing consoling measures, or being too fragile to complete the assessment
 MOTOR SYSTEM
 Assessed in alert states (3 to 5). Evaluation of the motor responses of the infant to handling
  General tone 4.94(1.18) 5.50(1.06) p = 0.01*#
  Motor maturity 4.60(1.80) 4.83(1.41) p = 0.42@
  Pull-to-sit 4.03(1.04) 4.67(0.68) p < 0.01*@
  Defensive 4.00(1.90) 4.12(2.25) p = 0.76@
  Activity level 3.48(1.03) 4.21(1.00) p < 0.01*#
 STATE ORGANIZATION
 Assessed throughout the evaluation. A measure of the amount of motor and crying activity observed, as well as how the infant moves between states 1 to 6
 Peak of excitement 2.54(0.99) 3.35(1.15) p < 0.01*@
 Rapidity of build-up 5.70(2.67) 5.00(2.76) p = 0.15#
 Irritability 2.78(1.82) 3.42(1.95) p = 0.05*#
 Lability of states 2.94(1.13) 3.33(1.06) p = 0.05*#
 STATE REGULATION
 Assessed throughout the evaluation. A measure of the ability of the infant to move between and maintain their state of arousal in alert or sleep states, and the strategies used or needed to facilitate this
  Cuddliness 6.51(1.56) 6.75(1.28) p = 0.36#
  Consolability 3.19(2.16) n = 38
3.61(2.02)
p = 0.34#
  Self-quieting 3.47(2.79) 4.45(2.65) p = 0.07#
  Hand-to-mouth 2.99(2.73) 3.48(2.73) p = 0.31#
 AUTONOMIC SYSTEM
 Assessed throughout the evaluation by observing the changes in the infant’s skin colour and vascularity, and in observations of tremors and startles-giving indication of central nervous system functioning and how the central and autonomic nervous systems are able to adapt to changes in the environment
  Tremulousness 5.91(1.78) 5.44(2.31) p = 0.26#
  Startles 6.81(1.66) 6.58(1.99) p = 0.46#
  Lability of skin colour 3.40(1.22) 4.23(1.08) p < 0.01*#
 SUPPLEMENTARY ITEMS
 Assessed throughout the evaluation. A measure of the qualitative aspects of the infant’s performance
  Quality of alertness 2.45(1.01) 3.42(1.72) p < 0.01*@
  Cost of attention 4.21(1.47) 5.23(1.94) p < 0.01*@
  Examiner facilitation 3.76(1.63) 4.85(1.93) p < 0.01*@
  General irritability 3.85(2.59) 5.29(2.80) p < 0.01*#
  Robustness & Endurance 3.50(1.26) 5.23(2.10) p < 0.01*@
  State regulation 3.48(1.51) 5.04(2.01) p < 0.01*#
  Examiners emotional response 4.19(2.03) 6.15(2.40) p < 0.01*@
 REFLEXES
 Administered in an alert state 3 – 5. Evaluation of reflex items with infant in supine with head in midline
  Plantar 1.73(0.50) 1.98(0.24) p < 0.01*@
  Babinski 1.74(0.59) 2.04(0.39) p < 0.01*@
  Ankle clonus 0.46(0.62) 0.56(0.57) p = 0.37#
  Rooting 1.73(0.52) 1.98(0.24) p < 0.01*@
  Sucking 1.81(0.48) 2.04(0.19) p < 0.01*@
  Glabella 2.03(0.45) 2.02(0.46) p = 0.94#
  Passive resistance – legs n = 78
1.68(0.76)
2.08(0.436) p < 0.01*@
  Passive resistance – arms n = 78
1.87(0.65)
2.12(0.40) p = 0.01*@
  Palmar n = 79
1.56(0.50)
1.90(0.30) p < 0.01*@
  Placing n = 77
1.71(0.46)
1.81(0.40) p = 0.22@
  Standing n = 77
1.51(0.50)
1.65(0.56) p = 0.12#
  Walking n = 77
1.57(0.76)
1.67(0.65) p = 0.44#
  Crawling n = 77
1.57(0.68)
1.75(0.44) p = 0.07@
  Incurvation n = 77
1.51(0.87)
1.87(0.35) p < 0.01*@
  Tonic deviation head& eyes n = 77
1.75(0.46)
n = 51
2.00(0.00)
p < 0.01*@
  Nystagmus n = 59
0.85(0.64)
n = 42
1.12(0.45)
p = 0.01*@
  TNR n = 77
1.34(0.55)
n = 51
1.61(0.49)
p = 0.01*#
  Moro n = 77
1.73(0.50)
1.96(0.34) p < 0.01*@
Note: Where n value is less than 80 in the exposed infant group, and less than 52 in the unexposed infant group, it is due to the infant not being able to complete the assessment. This may be due to the infant being too sleepy, crying and needing consoling measures, or being too fragile to complete the assessment
  1. #Equal variance assumed according to Levine’s test for equality of variances
  2. @Equal variances not assumed according to Levine’s test for equality of variances
  3. *p value significant at the 95% confidence level