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Table 3 Associations between deprivation indices and congenital heart disease by rural or urban residence

From: Associations of congenital heart disease with deprivation index by rural-urban maternal residence: a population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

Variable Urban residence Rural residence
Adjusted OR Adjusted OR
Material deprivation indexa
 1 (lowest) Reference Reference
 2 1.07 (0.99–1.16) 0.93 (0.77–1.13)
 3 1.11 (1.03–1.2) 1.17 (0.97–1.41)
 4 1.16 (1.07–1.25) 1.04 (0.84–1.28)
 5 (highest) 1.20 (1.11–1.29) 1.30 (1.06–1.61)
Social deprivation indexb
 1 (lowest) Reference Reference
 2 1.09 (1.00–1.18) 1.01 (0.86–1.19)
 3 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 0.96 (0.81–1.14)
 4 1.11 (1.03–1.19) 1.00 (0.80–1.25)
 5 (highest) 1.20 (1.11–1.29) 0.68 (0.37–1.24)
Maternal age at birth
  < 30 years Reference Reference
 30–34 years 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 1.05 (0.91–1.2)
  > 35 years 1.25 (1.18–1.33) 1.4 (1.20–1.64)
Obesity
 Yes 1.29 (1.22–1.37) 1.15 (0.99–1.32)
 No Reference Reference
 Unknown 1.13 (1.06–1.22) 1.10 (0.90–1.34)
ART derived pregnancy
 Yes 1.16 (1.03–1.30) 0.90 (0.62–1.32)
 No Reference Reference
Smoking, alcohol or drug use during pregnancy
 Yes 1.31 (1.23–1.4) 1.25 (1.08–1.44)
 No Reference Reference
All types of mental health illness in pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy
 Yes 1.22 (1.15–1.30) 1.26 (1.10–1.45)
 No Reference Reference
Pre-pregnancy maternal health conditions
 Yes 1.74 (1.66–1.83) 1.68 (1.48–1.92)
 No Reference Reference
Infant sex
 Male 1.09 (1.04–1.14) 1.21 (1.07–1.36)
 Female Reference Reference
  1. a p trend (Cochran–Armitage test) is 0.002 for rural area and < 0.0001 for urban area
  2. b p trend (Cochran–Armitage test) is 0.98 for rural area and < 0.0001 for urban area