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Table 2 Associations between deprivation indices and congenital heart disease

From: Associations of congenital heart disease with deprivation index by rural-urban maternal residence: a population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

Variable Crude OR Adjust OR
Material deprivation index
 1 (lowest) Reference Reference
 2 1.04 (0.96–1.12) 1.05 (0.97–1.13)
 3 1.11 (1.03–1.19) 1.12 (1.04–1.20)
 4 1.13 (1.05–1.21) 1.15 (1.07–1.23)
 5 (highest) 1.20 (1.12–1.28) 1.21 (1.12–1.29)
Social deprivation indexa
 1 (lowest) Reference Reference
 2 1.10 (1.02–1.18) 1.08 (1–1.15)
 3 1.07 (1–1.15) 1.04 (0.97–1.12)
 4 1.14 (1.06–1.22) 1.09 (1.02–1.17)
 5 (highest) 1.25 (1.17–1.34) 1.18 (1.1–1.26)
Rural residence
 Yes 1.12 (1.06–1.2) 1.13 (1.06–1.21)
 No Reference Reference
Maternal age at birth
  < 30 years Reference Reference
 30–34 years 0.94 (0.90–0.99) 1.00 (0.95–1.05)
  > 35 years 1.22 (1.16–1.28) 1.27 (1.20–1.34)
Obesity
 Yes 1.41 (1.33–1.48) 1.27 (1.20–1.34)
 No Reference Reference
 Unknown 1.1 (1.03–1.18) 1.13 (1.06–1.21)
ART derived pregnancy
 Yes 1.25 (1.12–1.39) 1.13 (1.01–1.26)
 No Reference Reference
Smoking, alcohol, or drug use during pregnancy
 Yes 1.46 (1.38–1.54) 1.31 (1.23–1.39)
 No Reference Reference
All types of mental health illness in pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy
 Yes 1.45 (1.37–1.53) 1.23 (1.17–1.30)
 No Reference Reference
Pre-pregnancy maternal health conditions
 Yes 1.86 (1.77–1.94) 1.73 (1.65–1.82)
 No Reference Reference
Infant sex
 Male 1.10 (1.06–1.15) 1.10 (1.06–1.15)
 Female Reference Reference
  1. a p trend (Cochran–Armitage test) < 0.0001