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Table 1 Maternal and infant characteristics of study population

From: Associations of congenital heart disease with deprivation index by rural-urban maternal residence: a population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

  Urban residence Rural residence P value
N % N %  
Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2, mean ± SD 24.96 6.11 25.82 6.52 < 0.0001
Maternal age at birth in years, mean ± SD 30.77 5.28 29.07 5.38 < 0.0001
  < 30 274,378 38.93 49,241 52.72 < 0.0001
 30–34 260,082 36.90 29,610 31.70  
 35 and over 169,809 24.09 14,529 15.56  
Obesity, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, yes, # (%)
 Yes 103,747 14.72 17,929 19.20 <.0001
 No 512,951 72.78 66,311 71.00  
 Missing 88,073 12.50 9162 9.81  
ART derived pregnancy      <.0001
 No 681,891 96.75 91,025 97.46  
 Yes 22,880 3.25 2377 2.54  
Maternal smoking or social drug use or alcohol consumption during pregnancy      <.0001
 Yes 77,164 10.95 18,313 19.61  
 No 608,983 86.41 74,565 79.83  
 Missing 18,624 2.64 524 0.56  
All types of mental health illness in pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy      <.0001
 Yes 99,735 14.15 18,874 20.21  
 No 605,036 85.85 74,528 79.79  
Pre-pregnancy health conditions , yes, # (%)      <.0001
 Yes 129,571 18.38 18,946 20.28  
 No 575,200 81.62 74,456 79.72  
Infant sex      0.35
 Male 361,547 51.30 48,053 51.45  
 Female 342,519 48.60 45,225 48.42