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Table 2 Adjusted associations between groups and family dog walking, dog play and dog-facilitated physical activity

From: A mobile health intervention to encourage physical activity in children: a randomised controlled trial

  Model 1 Model 2
  Baseline to 1-month follow-up Baseline to 3-months follow-up Baseline to 1-month follow-up Baseline to 3-months follow-up
  OR (95%CI) P value OR (95%CI) P value OR (95%CI) P value OR (95%CI) P value
SMS groupa
 Family dog walking 2.15 (0.89, 5.21) 0.09* 2.20 (0.97, 5.04) 0.061* 1.60 (0.62, 4.18) 0.33 1.82 (0.73, 4.54) 0.20
 Dog play 0.87 (0.32, 2.35) 0.78 2.47 (0.97, 6.29) 0.058* 0.79 (0.28, 2.25) 0.67 1.89 (0.72, 4.98) 0.20
 Total dog-facilitated physical activity 1.70 (0.73, 3.97) 0.22 2.61 (1.17, 5.83) 0.019** 1.51 (0.60, 3.81) 0.38 2.20 (0.93, 5.21) 0.072*
‘SMS + pedometer’ groupb
 Family dog walking 1.63 (0.68, 3.88) 0.27 1.18 (0.54, 2.57) 0.68 1.59 (0.64, 3.96) 0.32 1.29 (0.57, 2.94) 0.54
 Dog play 0.63 (0.23, 1.73) 0.37 1.70 (0.73, 3.96) 0.22 0.49 (0.17, 1.43) 0.19 1.71 (0.70, 4.17) 0.24
 Total dog-facilitated physical activity 1.18 (0.52, 2.68) 0.69 1.54 (0.71, 3.35) 0.27 1.09 (0.46, 2.55) 0.85 1.67 (0.75, 3.71) 0.21
‘Combined intervention’ groupc
 Family dog walking 1.83 (0.87, 3.85) 0.11 1.60 (0.81, 3.16) 0.18 1.56 (0.71, 3.39) 0.27 1.63 (0.79, 3.33) 0.19
 Dog play 0.72 (0.29, 1.74) 0.46 2.02 (0.94, 4.35) 0.072* 0.60 (0.24, 1.51) 0.28 1.84 (0.83, 4.06) 0.13
 Total dog-facilitated physical activity 1.38 (0.67, 2.82) 0.38 1.97 (1.01, 3.86) 0.048** 1.16 (0.55, 2.46) 0.70 1.98 (0.98, 3.97) 0.056*
  1. aSMS group (n= 50) compared to usual care group (n=50). b‘SMS + pedometer’ group (n=50) compared to usual care group (n=50). c’Combined intervention’ group (n=100) compared with usual care group (n=50). Model 1 adjusted for baseline family dog walking, dog play or total dog-facilitated PA as relevant. Model 2 adjusted for factors in Model 1 and child sex, child age and parental educational level. Ref = usual care group. *p<0.1; ** p<0.05