Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic information, covariates and personal air pollutant exposure level between pass and not pass of DPOAE test groups (n = 1190)

From: Effects of ambient air pollution, fresh fruit and vegetable intakes as well as maternal psychosocial stress on the outcome of newborn otoacoustic emission hearing screening

  Not pass(n = 166) Pass(n = 1024) p
Maternal age (years)    0.245
 23 3(1.8) 26(2.5)  
 23–30 103(62.0) 564(55.2)  
 ≥ 30 60(36.1) 432(42.3)  
Maternal education    0.883
 Middle school or below 5(3.0) 28(2.7)  
 High school 28(16.9) 159(15.5)  
 College or above 133(80.1) 837(81.7)  
Parity    0.049
 Primiparous 114(69.9) 628(61.9)  
 Multiparous 49(30.1) 386(38.1)  
Paternal age(years)    0.199
 < 30 67(40.4) 341(33.4)  
 30–35 61(36.7) 433(42.4)  
 ≥ 35 38(22.9) 248(24.3)  
Neonates gender    0.210
 Male 96(57.8) 537(52.6)  
 Female 70(42.2) 484(47.4)  
Midwifery    0.730
 Yes 33(19.9) 192(18.8)  
 No 133(80.1) 832(81.3)  
Gestational age(weeks)    1.000
 37 162(97.6) 999(97.7)  
 37–42 4(2.4) 24(2.3)  
Birth weight(g)    0.460
 2500 0(0.0) 8(0.8)  
 2500–3950 159(95.8) 980(95.8)  
 ≥ 4000 7(4.2) 35(3.4)  
Amniotic fluid condition    0.556
 Normal 133(80.1) 816(79.8)  
 Amniotic fluid turbidity 30(18.1) 193(18.9)  
 Oligohydramnios 0(0.0) 5(0.5)  
 Umbilical cord around the neck 3(1.8) 9(0.9)  
Folate intake    0.306
 No 8(4.8) 71(7.0)  
 Yes 158(95.2) 950(97.0)  
Fruit or vegetable intake    0.126
 No 7(4.2) 20(2.0)  
 Yes 159(95.8) 1001(98.0)  
Milk or soy milk intake    0.873
 No 47(28.3) 295(28.9)  
 Yes 119(71.7) 725(71.1)  
Family relationship    0.987
 Well 139(85.8) 862(85.0)  
 General 19(11.7) 123(12.1)  
 Worse 3(1.9) 23(2.3)  
 Terrible 1(0.6) 6(0.6)  
Stress and anxiety    0.518
 No 118(71.1) 751(73.5)  
 Yes 48(28.9) 271(26.5)  
Stressful life event    0.021
 No 155(93.4) 987(97.0)  
 Yes 11(6.6) 31(3.0)  
House renovation    0.660
 No 163(98.2) 992(97.3)  
 Yes 3(1.8) 28(2.7)  
Kitchen fuel    0.355
 Fuel gas 143(86.1) 907(88.7)  
 Coal 16(9.6) 90(8.8)  
 Electric 4(2.4) 19(1.9)  
 Others 3(1.8) 6(0.6)  
Maternal active smoking(cigarettes per day)    0.796
 Never 165(99.4) 1013(98.9)  
 Less than 10 1(0.6) 9(0.9)  
 10–20 0(0.0) 2(0.2)  
Paternal active smoking(cigarettes per day)    0.733
 Never 102(61.4) 640(62.5)  
 Less than 10 43(25.9) 231(22.6)  
 10–20 18(10.8) 128(12.5)  
 More than 20 3(1.8) 25(2.4)  
Passive smoking    0.821
 No 119(72.6) 748(73.4)  
 Yes 45(27.4) 271(26.6)  
Maternal alcohol intake    0.134
 Never 157(94.6) 989(96.9)  
 Rarely 9(5.4) 32(3.1)  
Paternal alcohol intake    0.758
 Never 99(59.6) 607(59.3)  
 Rarely 61(36.7) 389(38.0)  
 Often 6(3.6) 27(2.6)  
PM10(μg/m3) 70.20 ± 7.24 68.27 ± 6.69 0.001
PM2.5(μg/m3) 44.37 ± 6.18 43.05 ± 5.49 0.017
CO(mg/m3) 1.00 ± 0.09 0.99 ± 0.10 0.070
NO2(μg/m3) 36.37 ± 4.38 35.83 ± 4.24 0.196
SO2(μg/m3) 13.97 ± 1.67 13.86 ± 1.53 0.467