Skip to main content

Table 4 Univariate and multivariable logistic regression for determinants of whether or not MBF for the first 6 months

From: The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on maternal delivery experiences and breastfeeding practices in China: data from a cross-sectional study

6-month mostly breastfeeding rate N (%) Univariate analysis Multivariable Logistic Regression
Non-MBF MBF P value 95% CI for OR
(N = 662) (N = 1138) (T = 1800) OR Lower Upper P value
Infant born before/during lockdown? 1800 (100)    0.003     
 born before lockdown   479 (39.1) 746 (60.9)   ref    
 born during lockdown   184 (31.9) 392 (68.1)   1.43 1.08 1.90 0.012
Maternal age (years)a 1764 (98) 31.8 ± 4.3 31.2 ± 4.1 0.000 0.96 0.93 0.99 0.011
Total years of maternal full-time education 1769 (98.3) 15.4 ± 2.5 15.3 ± 2.6 0.620 1.02 0.96 1.07 0.618
Household annual income in CNY 1417 (78.7)    0.781     
 < 200,000   239 (37.2) 404 (62.8)   ref    
 200,000-300,000   161 (39.2) 250 (60.8)   0.94 0.69 1.29 0.700
 > 300,000   135 (37.2) 228 (62.8)   1.36 0.96 1.93 0.089
Maternal social class b 1706 (94.8)    0.233     
 IV & V   185 (35.1) 342 (64.9)   ref    
 III   197 (35.6) 357 (64.4)   1.08 0.76 1.53 0.666
 I & II   247 (39.5) 379 (60.5)   0.77 0.55 1.07 0.113
Building living c 1627 (90.4)    0.204     
 Bungalow   5 (55.6) 4 (44.4)   ref    
 T apartment without garden   79 (33.5) 157 (66.5)   3.82 0.66 22.13 0.134
 T apartment with garden   119 (33.2) 239 (66.8)   4.75 0.83 27.16 0.080
 B apartment no garden   83 (36.4) 145 (63.6)   3.67 0.64 21.21 0.146
 B apartment with garden   302 (39.4) 465 (60.6)   2.82 0.50 15.84 0.240
 Villa with garden   9 (30) 21 (70)   3.53 0.50 25.18 0.208
whether had support from families/friends after birth 1797 (99.8)    0.360     
 No   36 (41.4) 51 (58.6)   ref    
 Yes   625 (36.5) 1086 (63.5)   1.95 1.06 3.59 0.032
Enough infant feeding support? 1784 (99.1)    0.053     
 not enough   23 (50) 23 (50)   ref    
 enough   628 (36.1) 1111 (63.9)   1.44 0.69 3.03 0.334
Enough support with own health? 1686 (93.7)    0.060     
 not enough   68 (43.3) 89 (56.7)   ref    
 enough   548 (35.8) 982 (64.2)   1.42 0.90 2.24 0.135
Contact with a health professional (/week) 1776 (98.7)    0.050     
 Never   428 (38.9) 673 (61.1)   ref    
 1–3 times/week   183 (34.3) 351 (65.7)   1.05 0.77 1.43 0.759
 4+ times/week   43 (30.3) 99 (69.7)   1.12 0.65 1.94 0.684
Discuss health issues in mothers’ group online (/week) 1778 (98.8)    0.040     
 Never   305 (39.9) 459 (60.1)   ref    
 1–3 times/week   251 (35.6) 455 (64.4)   1.23 0.91 1.68 0.177
 4+ times/week   99 (32) 210 (68)   1.66 1.09 2.53 0.019
Mode of delivery 1796 (99.8)    0.000     
 Vaginal   387 (33.4) 772 (66.6)   ref    
 Caesarean   275 (43.1) 363 (56.9)   0.77 0.59 1.01 0.059
whether COVID impacted birth location 1782 (99)    0.584     
 Yes   41 (34.5) 78 (65.5)   ref    
 No   615 (37) 1049 (63)   1.67 0.96 2.90 0.067
COVID impact on purchasing daily necessities 1785 (99.2)    0.355     
 Moderate-great impact   294 (35.6) 532 (64.4)   ref    
 Little or no impact   362 (37.7) 598 (62.3)   0.80 0.61 1.04 0.096
  1. Notes: MBF Mostly breastfeeding, CI confidence interval, DL mothers who delivered during the lockdown, BL mothers who delivered before the lockdown. Factors controlled for included maternal socio-economic status (education, income, social class), living conditions, cohabitation with family members (“Who did you live with during the lockdown?”), gestational age, health advice-seeking behaviour (“Frequency of discussing with health professionals/chatting in breastfeeding support group”), support (“Did you receive enough support from health professionals/family members?”), and the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on maternal daily life
  2. a Younger maternal age as reference
  3. b Class IV&V mainly refer to manual labor jobs which don’t require high education experience; Jobs in class III & II require certain training, certifications, licenses and degree to qualify; Jobs in class I involve professional careers which require advanced degree, high-end skills or expertise
  4. c T-apartment is a type of apartment building with around ten residents live in each floor; and B-apartment is a type of apartment with less than three residents live in each floor