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Table 2 Outcomes reported

From: Melatonin for pre-medication in children: a systematic review

Outcome theme Outcome reported Almenrader Ansari Faghihian Gitto Impellizzeri Isik Kain Khalifa Kurdi Ozcengiz Samarkandi
Anxiety Pre-operative anxiety (n=433)      0a   -a   +a   0
Behaviour during separation from parents (n=100)          +   
Post-operative anxiety (n=80)      0       
Parental anxiety (n=228)      0   0     
Anaesthesia Compliance to intravenous induction (n=460)    -   0   -   +   
Successful steal induction (n=87) 0a           
Quality of mask induction (n=87) 0           
Required infusion of propofol (n=92)     +a        
Sedation Sedation success (n=407)   - - 0   -    -a   
Time to onset of sleep (n=87) 0           
Recovery Recovery duration (n=324) 0   -         +
Recovery score (n=197)     0        0
Emergence behaviour (n=368)        + 0   0  
Hemodynamic variables (n=123)   0         0  
Maintenance of cognition & psychomotor skills (n=100)          +a   
Analgesia Post-operative analgesia (n=237)    0         +
Long term follow-up Behaviour (2-week post op) (n=105)            +
  1. aExplicitly stated to be the primary outcome; - Melatonin was less effective than comparator; + Melatonin was more effective than comparator; 0 Melatonin was equally as effective as comparator