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Table 4 Associationsa between Maternal and birth characteristics and the children’s in- and outpatient visits separately, and any morbidity both including and excluding chapter XVI Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period

From: Maternal advanced age, single parenthood, and ART increase the risk of child morbidity up to five years of age

  Outpatient visits
0-10 vs 11- visits
Inpatient visits
0-1 vs 2 visits
Any Morbidityb
(incl chap XVI)
Any Morbidityb (excl chap XVI)
  aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Maternal age
 ≤39 years Reference Reference Reference Reference
 ≥40 years 0.97 (0.89-1.06) 0.93 (0.85-1.02) 0.88 (0.82-0.94) 0.88 (0.82-0.94)
Civil status
 Married/ cohabiting Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Single status at registration 1.09 (0.94-1.27) 0.96 (0.82-1.12) 1.05 (0.93-1.19) 1.06 (0.93-1.19)
Assisted reproductive technologyc
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 1.18 (0.98-1.41) 0.95 (0.79-1.15) 1.39 (1.18-1.64) 1.46 (1.24-1.71)
Gender
 Boy Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Girl 0.66 (0.60-0.72) 0.64 (0.59-0.70) 0.72 (0.67-0.77) 0.72 (0.68-0.77)
Size for gestational age
 Average for gestational age Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Small for gestational age 1.18 (0.91-1.53) 1.11 (0.86-1.43) 1.03 (0.78-1.34) 0.99 (0.77-1.27)
Gestational age
 Born at term Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Born pretermd 1.82 (1.51-2.19) 3.31 (2.81-3.90) 1.98 (1.60-2.45) 1.41 (1.17-1.70)
Birthweight
 Normal Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Low birth weighte 1.74 (1.39-2.18) 2.06 (1.68-2.53) 1.48 (1.13-1.94) 1.17 (0.93-1.48)
Nicotine use during pregnancy
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 1.37 (1.20-1.56) 1.17 (1.03-1.34) 1.20 (1.07-1.35) 1.22 (1.09-1.38)
Educational level
 Elementary 1.31 (1.15-1.50) 1.28 (1.11-1.46) 1.28 (1.14-1.44) 1.30 (1.16-1.45)
 High school 1.14 (1.04-1.24) 1.13 (1.03-1.24) 1.05 (0.98-1.13) 1.04 (0.97-1.12)
College/
University
Reference Reference Reference Reference
  1. a Adjusted for all variables presented in the table. Statistically significant ORs are presented in bold text
  2. b Any morbidity: the presence of any diagnosis within any of ICD-10 chapters I to XIX
  3. c Assisted reproductive technology (ART): ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with own or donated gametes, embryo donation
  4. d Born preterm (PT): born at <37 weeks’ gestation
  5. e Low birth weight (LBW): birth weight <2500 g