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Table 3 Characteristic of interventions

From: Effectiveness of feeding supplementation in preterm infants: an overview of systematic reviews

Author

Feeding supplementation

Outcome improvement

  

Physical growth

Neurodevelopment

Biochemical outcomes

Other health outcomes

Morbidity of any disease

All-cause mortality

  

ST

LT

ST

LT

    

Pammi et al.

Lactoferrin

NR

NR

NR

NSD

NR

Hospital stay ↓c

urinary tract infection ↓c

LOS ↓c

Fungal sepsis ↓b

NSD

Howlett et al.

Inositol

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NSD

Neonatal death ↓b

Walsh et al.

Iodine

NSD

NR

NR

NSD

NSD

NSD

NSD

NSD

Chi et al.

Prebiotics

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

Days achieve full enteral feeding↓d

Hospital stay ↓d

Stool frequency ↑c

Sepsis ↓a

a

Armannia et al.

Prebiotics

NR

NR

NR

NR

NSD

Phototherapy rate ↓c

Hospital stay ↓c

Stool frequency ↑a

Hyperbilirubina-emia ↓c

NSD

Amissah et al.

Fat

NSD

NR

NR

NR

NR

NSD

NR

NR

Amissah et al.

Protein

Weight ↑c

Length ↑c

HC ↑c

NR

NR

NR

Blood urea nitrogen ↑c

Hospital stay ↑d

NSD

NR

Amissah et al.

Carbohydrate

Weight ↑d

NR

NR

NR

NR

Hospital stay ↓d

NSD

NR

Yang et al.

Vitamin D

Length ↑a

HC ↑a

NR

NR

NR

Ig-A ↑a

Ig-G ↑c

IL-12 ↑b

NR

NSD

NR

Harding et al.

Calcium and/or phosphorus

NSD

NR

NR

NR

NSD

NSD

NR

NR

Shah et al.

Arginine

NR

NSD

NR

NSD

NR

NR

NEC ↓b

NSD (death related to NEC ↓b)

Aceti et al.

Probiotic

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

LOS ↓a

NR

Moe-Byrne et al.

glutamine

NSD

NR

NR

NSD

NR

Days achieve full enteral feeding ↓

NSD

NSD

Moon et al.

LCPUFA

Weight ↑c;

Length ↑c.

NSD

NR

NSD

NR

NR

NR

NR

AlFaleh et al.

Probiotics

NSD

NR

NR

NSD

NR

Hospital stay ↓d

Days achieve full enteral feeding ↓d

NEC ↓c

d

Young et al.

Mult-inutrient

NR

NSD

NR

Visual acuity↑c

NR

Bone mineral content (4/12 months) ↑c

NR

NR

Verner et al.

Taurine

NSD

NR

NSD

NR

NR

Intestinal fat absorption ↑c

NSD

NSD

  1. ST, Short term; LT, Long Term;
  2. NR, Not reported; NSD, No statistical significance
  3. a, High certainty; b, Moderate certainty; c, low certainty; d, very low certainty;
  4. ↑, Increase; ↓, Decrease;
  5. LCPUFA, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; HC, head circumference; LOS, late-onset sepsis; NEC, necrotizing enterocolitis
  6. Indication:
  7. NEC is defined as Bell’s stage ≥II. [13]
  8. Hospital stay measured in days to discharge. [13]
  9. LOS is defined as the presence of a positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture taken 72 h after birth. [23]
  10. Hyperbilirubinaemia is defined as follows: [1] for term and late preterm neonates (GW ≥ 35w), total bilirubin (TB) level is eligible for phototherapy or as absolute TB level ≥ 15 mg/dL. [2] for preterm neonates (GW < 35w), TB level is eligible for phototherapy or as absolute TB level > 1% of body weight. [16]
  11. Stool frequency is defined as total number of defecations recorded per day during intervention. [16]
  12. Days achieve full enteral feeding is defined as days from birth to establish full enteral tube feeds (at least 150 ml/kg/day). [25]
  13. Bone mineral content assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and clinical or radiological evidence of rickets on long-term follow-up. [27]