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Table 3 Characteristic of interventions

From: Effectiveness of feeding supplementation in preterm infants: an overview of systematic reviews

Author Feeding supplementation Outcome improvement
   Physical growth Neurodevelopment Biochemical outcomes Other health outcomes Morbidity of any disease All-cause mortality
   ST LT ST LT     
Pammi et al. Lactoferrin NR NR NR NSD NR Hospital stay ↓c
urinary tract infection ↓c
LOS ↓c
Fungal sepsis ↓b
NSD
Howlett et al. Inositol NR NR NR NR NR NR NSD Neonatal death ↓b
Walsh et al. Iodine NSD NR NR NSD NSD NSD NSD NSD
Chi et al. Prebiotics NR NR NR NR NR Days achieve full enteral feeding↓d
Hospital stay ↓d
Stool frequency ↑c
Sepsis ↓a a
Armannia et al. Prebiotics NR NR NR NR NSD Phototherapy rate ↓c
Hospital stay ↓c
Stool frequency ↑a
Hyperbilirubina-emia ↓c NSD
Amissah et al. Fat NSD NR NR NR NR NSD NR NR
Amissah et al. Protein Weight ↑c
Length ↑c
HC ↑c
NR NR NR Blood urea nitrogen ↑c Hospital stay ↑d NSD NR
Amissah et al. Carbohydrate Weight ↑d NR NR NR NR Hospital stay ↓d NSD NR
Yang et al. Vitamin D Length ↑a
HC ↑a
NR NR NR Ig-A ↑a
Ig-G ↑c
IL-12 ↑b
NR NSD NR
Harding et al. Calcium and/or phosphorus NSD NR NR NR NSD NSD NR NR
Shah et al. Arginine NR NSD NR NSD NR NR NEC ↓b NSD (death related to NEC ↓b)
Aceti et al. Probiotic NR NR NR NR NR NR LOS ↓a NR
Moe-Byrne et al. glutamine NSD NR NR NSD NR Days achieve full enteral feeding ↓ NSD NSD
Moon et al. LCPUFA Weight ↑c;
Length ↑c.
NSD NR NSD NR NR NR NR
AlFaleh et al. Probiotics NSD NR NR NSD NR Hospital stay ↓d
Days achieve full enteral feeding ↓d
NEC ↓c d
Young et al. Mult-inutrient NR NSD NR Visual acuity↑c NR Bone mineral content (4/12 months) ↑c NR NR
Verner et al. Taurine NSD NR NSD NR NR Intestinal fat absorption ↑c NSD NSD
  1. ST, Short term; LT, Long Term;
  2. NR, Not reported; NSD, No statistical significance
  3. a, High certainty; b, Moderate certainty; c, low certainty; d, very low certainty;
  4. ↑, Increase; ↓, Decrease;
  5. LCPUFA, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; HC, head circumference; LOS, late-onset sepsis; NEC, necrotizing enterocolitis
  6. Indication:
  7. NEC is defined as Bell’s stage ≥II. [13]
  8. Hospital stay measured in days to discharge. [13]
  9. LOS is defined as the presence of a positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture taken 72 h after birth. [23]
  10. Hyperbilirubinaemia is defined as follows: [1] for term and late preterm neonates (GW ≥ 35w), total bilirubin (TB) level is eligible for phototherapy or as absolute TB level ≥ 15 mg/dL. [2] for preterm neonates (GW < 35w), TB level is eligible for phototherapy or as absolute TB level > 1% of body weight. [16]
  11. Stool frequency is defined as total number of defecations recorded per day during intervention. [16]
  12. Days achieve full enteral feeding is defined as days from birth to establish full enteral tube feeds (at least 150 ml/kg/day). [25]
  13. Bone mineral content assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and clinical or radiological evidence of rickets on long-term follow-up. [27]