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Table 2 Studies investigating the association between FFM/LBM and GT in children and adolescents

From: Fat-free/lean body mass in children with insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Study design Population n (♀; ♂) Age Country Study period Method to assess maturation stage Method to assess body composition Metabolic variables GT criteria Body composition outcome by GT. Association: body composition– GT Secondary outcomes
NGT
Mean ± SD
IGT
Mean ± SD
Kim, et al. [25] CS 205 adolescents (♀ 66%; ♂ 34%) 14.6 ± 0.2 USA NA Tanner scale
IV 30% (n = 61); V 70% (n = 115)
DXA Glucose; HOMA-IR; insulin; free fatty acids; HbA1c; lipid profile; leptin and adiponectin. HbA1c and/or a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (n = 138) (n = 38) FFM was progressively and significantly higher from normal weight to obese and from NGT to IGT (p < 0.0001)  
Normal weight (n = 49)
Tanner IV (55% n = 27); V (45% (n = 22)
FFM (kg)
41.3 ± 1.2
Obese (n = 38)
Tanner IV (21% n = 8); V (79% n = 30)
FFM (kg)
51.4 ± 1.7
Obese (n = 89)
Tanner IV (29% n = 26); V (71% n = 63)
FFM (kg)
49.2 ± 1.0
Goran et al. [99] CS 150 children and adolescents (♀ 43.3% ♂ 56.7%) 11.0 ± 1.7 USA NA Tanner stages
I (36% n = 54)
II (33.3% n = %50)
III (8.6% n = 13)
IV (12% n = 18)
V (9.3% n = 14)
DXA Fasting glucose; 2-h oral glucose tolerance test; fasting insulin 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (n = 87) (n = 35) No significant difference between groups with NGT and IGT  
LBM (kg)
35.9 ± 10.3
LBM (kg)
36.3 ± 10.0
Weiss et al. [31] CS 28 children and adolescents with obesity (♀ 57.1; ♂ 42.8) 13.5 ± 2.1 USA NA Tanner stages. PrepubertaTanner (28.6% n = 8); pubertal (71.4% n = 20). DXA Fasting glucose; 2 h glucose; fasting insulin; fasting C-peptide; leptin; adiponectin; HbA1c; plasma fatty acids; glycerol; glycerol turnover, and lipid oxidation rates. Euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp and the hyperglycaemic clamp. (n = 14)
(♀ 6; ♂ 8)
(n = 14)
(♀ 6; ♂ 8)
No significant difference between groups with IGT and NGT  
LBM (kg)
55.9 ± 9.4
LBM (kg)
53.2 ± 15.2
  1. CS Cross-sectional studies, NGT Normal glucose tolerance, IGT Impaired glucose tolerance, DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, LBM Lean body mass, HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test, FFM Fat-free mass