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Table 1 Parent, Infant, and Hospital Characteristics

From: Parents’ pandemic NICU experience in the United States: a qualitative study

Parent Characteristics
  Mean (SD)
Age (years) 31 (5.4)
Number of individuals in home 3.8 (1.3)
  n (%)
Total respondents 169 (100)
Race/ethnicity
Asian, American Indian, Hawaiian 3 (2)
non-Hispanic Black 4 (2)
non-Hispanic White 105 (62)
non-Hispanic More than one race 4 (2)
Hispanic/Latinx 13 (8)
Not answered 40 (24)
Number of children
1 79 (47)
2–3 68 (40)
4 or more 22 (13)
Marital status
Not partnered 9 (5)
Married/Living with partner 119 (70)
Not answered 41 (24)
Education
Some high school 4 (2)
High school graduate/GED 16 (9)
Some college or 2-year degree 37 (22)
College graduate 40 (24)
Graduate/Professional degree 32 (19)
Not answered 40 (24)
Income
<  35,000 27 (16)
35,000 – 75,000 41 (24)
> 75,000 58 (34)
Not answered 44 (26)
Insurance
Private insurance 89 (53)
Government health plan 38 (22)
No coverage 2 (1)
Not answered 40 (24)
Infant Characteristics
  Mean (SD)
Age at time of survey (weeks) 9.7 (6.9)
Length of NICU stay (days) 41 (31)
  n (%)
Total respondents 169 (100)
Gestational category
Extremely preterm (23–27) 37 (22)
Preterm (28–33) 74 (44)
Late preterm (34–36) 25 15
Term (> 37) 35 (21)
Not answered 23 (14)
Reason for admission
Prematurity 119 (70)
Congenital birth defects 6 (4)
Neurological 12 (7)
Other 31 (18)
Not answered 1 (1)
Hospital-Related Characteristics
  Mean (SD)
Hours with infant in NICU per day 7.7 (6.1)
  n (%)
Total respondents 169 (100)
Distance to hospital
Less than 30 min 64 (38)
30–60 min 41 (24)
1–2 h 14 (8)
More than 2 h 9 (5)
Not answered 41 (24)
Frequency of visitation
Daily 115 (68)
Every couple days 8 (5)
Weekly 4 (2)
As schedule allowed 2 (1)
Not answered 40 (24)
Video visitation with infant
No 89 (53)
Yes 40 (24)
Not answered 40 (24)
Hospital type
NICU in a children’s hospital 47 (28)
Community hospital with a NICU 49 (29)
NICU at an academic medical center/regional care center 27 (16)
Observational/small special care nursery 1 (1)
Unsure/Other 5 (3)
Not answered 40 (24)