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Table 4 Estimates of decomposition analysis for the contribution of various explanatory variables for low birth weight children in India, 2015–16

From: Newborn low birth weight: do socio-economic inequality still persist in India?

Background characteristics Coefficient Elasticity CCI Absolute Contribution to CCI Percentage contribution
Age at index birth
 ≤ 19 (Ref.)      
 20–24 − 0.196*** − 0.009 0.004 0.000 0.4
 25–29 − 0.264*** − 0.003 0.073 0.000 2.6
 30–35 −0.286*** − 0.001 0.024 0.000 0.1
 35+ − 0.261** − 0.001 0.024 0.000 0.1
Body mass index
 Underweight 0.239*** 0.009 −0.219 − 0.002 21.9
 Normal (Ref.)      
 Overweight and Obese −0.072*** − 0.002 0.330 − 0.001 6.4
ANC
 No (Ref.)      
 Partial −0.285*** − 0.031 − 0.056 0.002 −18.6
 Full −0.446*** − 0.016 0.231 − 0.004 39.4
Birth order and interval
 First (Ref.)      
 2–3 & < 24 months −0.118*** −0.002 − 0.046 0.000 −1.1
 2–3 & > 23 months − 0.170*** −0.010 0.024 0.000 2.5
 4+ & < 24 months −0.050 0.000 −0.397 0.000 −1.3
 4+ & > 23 months −0.209*** −0.003 − 0.374 0.001 −11.6
Education
 No education (Ref.)      
 Primary 0.036 0.001 −0.273 0.000 3.5
 Secondary −0.094*** −0.005 0.091 0.000 5.1
 Higher −0.308*** −0.006 0.579 −0.003 34.8
Caste
 Scheduled Caste 0.054** 0.000 −0.158 0.000 0.5
 Scheduled Tribe −0.077*** 0.001 −0.396 0.000 2.1
 Other Backward Class −0.030 −0.002 0.036 0.000 0.6
 Others (Ref.)      
Religion
 Hindu (Ref.)      
 Muslim −0.058** −0.002 0.036 0.000 0.6
 Others −0.233*** −0.001 0.221 0.000 1.4
Wealth index
 Poorest (Ref.)      
 Poorer −0.056** −0.002 −0.463 0.001 −8.5
 Middle −0.093*** −0.003 − 0.055 0.000 −1.7
 Richer −0.089** −0.003 0.376 −0.001 10.1
 Richest −0.240*** −0.009 0.798 −0.007 73.7
Residence
 Urban (Ref.)      
 Rural −0.114*** −0.007 − 0.212 0.001 −15.7
Sex of the child
 Male (Ref.)      
 Female 0.204*** 0.013 −0.002 0.000 0.3
Region
 North (Ref.)      
 Central −0.080*** −0.004 −0.107 0.000 −4.5
 East −0.394*** −0.015 − 0.340 0.005 −56.2
 Northeast −0.682*** −0.003 − 0.220 0.001 −7.1
 West −0.066** −0.003 0.158 −0.001 5.8
 South −0.175*** −0.008 0.202 −0.002 18.0
Source of drinking Water
 Not improved (Ref.)      
 Improvedb 0.030 −0.002 0.005 0.000 0.1
Type of toilet facility
 Not improved (Ref.)      
 Improvedc 0.003 −0.001 0.321 0.000 4.8
Type of cooking fuel
 Unclean (Ref.)      
 Cleand −0.039* 0.002 0.472 0.001 −8.1
Calculated CCI     −0.009  
Actual CCI     −0.056  
Residual     −0.047  
  1. Ref. Reference category, CCI Concentration index
  2. ***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.10
  3. aFull ANC defined as women who received four or more antenatal checks, at least two tetanus toxoid injection, and took iron and folic acid tablets or syrup for 100 days or more during their last live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey
  4. bInclude piped water, public taps, standpipes, tube wells, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, rainwater, and community reverse osmosis (RO) plants
  5. cInclude flush/pour flush toilets to piped sewer systems, septic tanks, and pit latrines; ventilated improved pit (VIP)/biogas latrines; pit latrines with slabs; and twin pit/composting toilets
  6. dInclude Electricity, LPG/natural gas, biogas