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Table 3 Estimates from logistic regression analysis for low birth weight children by their background characteristics, India, 2015–16

From: Newborn low birth weight: do socio-economic inequality still persist in India?

Background characteristics OR [95% CI]
Age at index birth (in Years)
 ≤ 19 Ref.
 20–24 0.82***(0.79–0.86)
 25–29 0.77***(0.73–0.81)
 30–35 0.75***(0.71–0.80)
 35+ 0.77**(0.70–0.85)
Body mass index
 Underweight 1.27***(1.23–1.32)
 Normal Ref.
 Overweight and Obese 0.93***(0.89–0.97)
Ante-natal care
 No Ref.
 Partial 0.75***(0.71–0.8)
 Fulla 0.64***(0.60–0.68)
Birth order and interval
 First Ref.
 2–3 & < 24 months 0.89***(0.85–0.93)
 2–3 & > 23 months 0.84***(0.81–0.88)
 4+ & < 24 months 0.95(0.87–1.04)
 4+ & > 23 months 0.81***(0.76–0.86)
Education
 No education Ref.
 Primary 1.04(0.99–1.09)
 Secondary 0.91***(0.87–0.95)
 Higher 0.73***(0.69–0.79)
Caste
 Scheduled Caste 1.06**(1.01–1.11)
 Scheduled Tribe 0.93***(0.88–0.98)
 Other Backward Class 0.97(0.93–1.01)
 Others Ref.
Religion
 Hindu Ref.
 Muslim 0.94**(0.90–0.99)
 Others 0.79***(0.74–0.84)
Wealth index
 Poorest Ref.
 Poorer 0.95**(0.90–0.99)
 Middle 0.91***(0.86–0.96)
 Richer 0.91**(0.85–0.98)
 Richest 0.79***(0.73–0.85)
Residence
 Urban Ref.
 Rural 0.89***(0.86–0.93)
Sex of the child
 Male Ref.
 Female 1.23***(1.19–1.26)
Region
 North Ref.
 Central 0.92***(0.88–0.97)
 East 0.67***(0.64–0.71)
 Northeast 0.51***(0.47–0.54)
 West 0.94**(0.88–0.99)
 South 0.84***(0.79–0.89)
Source of drinking Water
 Not improved Ref.
 Improvedb 1.03(0.99–1.07)
Type of toilet facility
 Not improved Ref.
 Improvedc 1.00(0.96–1.05)
Type of cooking fuel
 Unclean Ref.
 Cleand 0.96*(0.92–0.99)
  1. Ref. Reference category, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. ***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.10
  3. aFull ANC defined as women who received four or more antenatal checks, at least two tetanus toxoid injection, and took iron and folic acid tablets or syrup for 100 days or more during their last live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey
  4. bInclude piped water, public taps, standpipes, tube wells, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, rainwater, and community reverse osmosis (RO) plants
  5. cInclude flush/pour flush toilets to piped sewer systems, septic tanks, and pit latrines; ventilated improved pit (VIP)/biogas latrines; pit latrines with slabs; and twin pit/composting toilets
  6. dInclude Electricity, LPG/natural gas, biogas