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Table 1 Percentage distribution of the study population by background characteristics, India, 2015–16

From: Newborn low birth weight: do socio-economic inequality still persist in India?

Background characteristics Percentage Sample
Age at index birth (in years)
 ≤ 19 14.3 18,144
 20–24 44.8 57,013
 25–29 28.0 35,622
 30–35 10.6 13,485
 35+ 2.3 2876
Body mass index
 Underweight 24.5 29,946
 Normal 57.5 75,821
 Overweight and Obese 18.0 21,374
Ante-natal care
 No 5.9 8223
 Partial 70.6 91,977
 Fulla 23.6 26,941
Birth order and interval
 First 34.9 43,295
 2–3 & < 23 months 12.8 15,263
 2–3 & > 23 months 41.0 51,640
 4+ & < 24 months 2.5 3643
 4+ & > 24 months 8.8 13,300
Education
 No education 20.5 27,650
 Primary 12.7 16,579
 Secondary 52.4 66,108
 Higher 14.5 16,804
Caste
 Scheduled Caste 20.5 23,074
 Scheduled Tribe 9.6 22,755
 Other Backward Class 42.8 49,913
 Others 27.1 31,399
Religion
 Hindu 80.3 95,539
 Muslim 14.2 17,005
 Others 5.4 14,597
Wealth index
 Poorest 17.0 23,287
 Poorer 19.8 26,643
 Middle 21.1 27,214
 Richer 21.9 25,895
 Richest 20.2 24,102
Residence
 Urban 34.0 36,874
 Rural 66.0 90,267
Sex of the child
 Male 55.5 70,380
 Female 44.5 56,761
Region
 North 13.6 25,133
 Central 20.1 30,284
 East 23.9 25,385
 Northeast 3.8 18,059
 West 15.6 11,289
 South 22.9 16,991
Source of drinking Water
 Not improved 15.6 20,723
 Improvedb 84.4 106,418
Type of toilet facility
 Not improved 44.8 57,163
 Improvedc 55.2 69,978
Type of cooking fuel
 Unclean 56.9 78,816
 Cleand 43.1 48,325
Total 100.0 127,141
  1. aFull ANC defined as mother who received four or more antenatal checks, at least two tetanus toxoid injection, and took iron and folic acid tablets or syrup for 100 days or more during their last live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey
  2. bInclude piped water, public taps, standpipes, tube wells, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, rainwater, and community reverse osmosis (RO) plants
  3. cInclude flush/pour flush toilets to piped sewer systems, septic tanks, and pit latrines; ventilated improved pit (VIP)/biogas latrines; pit latrines with slabs; and twin pit/composting toilets
  4. dInclude Electricity, LPG/natural gas, biogas