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Table 6 Results of bivariate and multivariable parametric Gompertz distribution country-level shared frailty survival regression model among under-five children in Sub-Saharan Africa countries, 2021

From: Time to death and its determinants among under-five children in Sub-Saharan Africa using the recent (2010–2018) demographic and health survey data: country-based shared frailty analyses

Variable Category Children Status CHR (95%CI) AHR (95%CI)
Alive Dead
Age 15-19 21,390 1720 1 1
20-35 258,669 19,726 0.83 (0.77-0.88)* 0.97(0.78-1.200
36-49 62,957 5775 0.89 (0.83-0.96)* 1.21(0.97-1.50
Maternal educational status No education 142,583 13,911 1 1
Primary 114,504 114,504 0.86 (0.83-0.90)* 0.97(0.92-1.03)
Secondary and above 85,929 4925 0.53 (0.51-0.56)* 0.77(0.71-0.83)
Husband educational status No education 111,662 11,196 1 1
Primary 81,738 6078 0.85 (0.82-0.90)* 0.94 (0.89-1.01)
Secondary and above 98,947 6563 0.63 (0.60-0.66* 0.87 (0.81-1.03)
Wealth status Poor 162,455 14,339 1 1
Middle 67,403 5452 0.82 (0.79-0.86)* 0.92 (0.87-0.97)*
Rich 113,158 7430 0.60 (0.58-0.62* 0.82 (0.77-0.87)*
Residence Rural 103,755 6904 1.44 (1.39-1.50)* 1.06 (1.00-1.12)*
Urban 239,261 20,317 1 1
Toilet facility No 116,714 10,480 1.18 (1.141.22)* 0.96 (0.91-1.01)
Yes 226,198 16,723 1 1
Water source Improved 78,491 4700 1 1
Unimproved 264,471 22,514 1.40 (1.34-1.47)* 1.11 (1.04-1.19)*
Sub-Saharan region East Africa 118,018 6890 0.88(0.55-1.42) 0.71(0.45-1.12)
West Africa 72,755 5869 1.61(1.01-2.58)* 1.05 (0.68-1.63)
Central Africa 141,121 13,776 1.44(0.86-2.41) 1.14(0.72-1.78)
Southern Africa 11,122 686 1 1
Sex Male 172,412 14,870 1 1
Female 170,604 12,351 0.92 (0.89-0.95)* 0.93 (0.90-0.97)*
Plurality Single 332,556 24,088 1 1
Multiple 10,460 3133 2.54 (2.40-2.70)* 2.70 (2.51-2.90)*
Preceding birth interval ≥ 24 months 218,390 14,063 1 1
18-23 months 33,235 3921 1.63 (1.60-1.71)* 1.55 (1.47-1.63)*
<  18 months 16,956 3135 2.24 (2.13-2.36)* 1.90 (1.78-2.02)*
Teenager pregnancy < 20 years 287,482 21,889 1.16 (1.12-1.21)* 0.95 (0.87-1.03
≥20 years 55,534 5332 1 1
Birth order ≤three 193,511 14,081 1 1
≥ four 149,505 13,140 1.19 (1.16-1.23)* 3.01 (2.85-3.19)*
Birth size at birth Low birth weight 206,247 15,411 1 1
Not low birth weight 120,712 7699 0.87 (0.84-0.90)* 0.93 (0.89-0.97)*
Place of delivery Health facility 213,837 13,001 1 1
Home 128,855 11,414 1.47 (1.41-1.52)* 1.17 (1.12-1.23)*
Gompertz distribution shape parameter gamma (γ) −0.04 (−0.043−0.039)
Frailty theta (θ) 0.07(0.04-0.12)
Frailty Kendall’s tau (τ) 0.03
  1. CHR Crude Hazard Ratio, AHR Adjusted Hazard Ratio
  2. *Significant at P < 0.05 levels