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Table 1 Characteristics of participants (n = 2405)

From: Gender-specific associations of pregnancy-related anxiety with placental epigenetic patterning of glucocorticoid response genes and preschooler’s emotional symptoms and hyperactivity

  Prenatal anxiety Control χ2/t P
Maternal age, years 26.21 ± 3.32 26.81 ± 3.70 3.95 0.000
Pre-pregnancy BMIa 20.50 ± 2.73 20.62 ± 2.78 1.01 0.311
Gestational weight gaina 18.13 ± 5.01 17.55 ± 5.07 −2.55 0.011
Maternal education    11.20 0.011
 Bachelor degree or above 163(22.9) 478(28.3)   
 Junior college 217(30.4) 536(31.7)   
 Senior high school or equal 182(25.5) 360(21.3)   
 Junior high school or below 151(21.2) 318(18.8)   
Family monthly income    5.74 0.057
  < 2500 RMB 222(31.2) 448(26.5)   
 2500–4000 RMB 294(41.2) 726(42.9)   
  > 4000 RMB 197(27.6) 518(30.6)   
Maternal smoking    10.45 0.001
 Never 670(94.0) 1638(96.8)   
 Former/current 43(6.0) 54(3.2)   
Maternal drinking    1.20 0.274
 Never 651(91.3) 1567(92.6)   
 Occasionally/frequently 62(8.7) 125(7.4)   
Gestational diabetes 80(11.2) 215(12.7) 2.73 0.435
Pregnancy-induced hypertensiona 28(3.9) 72(4.3) 2.20 0.532
Preterm birth 17(2.4) 58(3.4) 1.81 0.179
Low birth weighta 12(1.7) 34(2.0) 0.37 0.831
Cesareana 389(2.4) 819(3.4) 7.83 0.005
Boys 360 874 2.27 0.602
Exclusive breastfeeding at first 6 monthsa 59(8.5) 215(13.0) 9.64 0.002
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body max index, RMB Chinese monetary unit yuan
  2. aThe survey data is missing