Skip to main content

Table 6 Factors independently associated with chronic pain among children with CP

From: Chronic pain among children with cerebral palsy attending a Ugandan tertiary hospital: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Overall
N = 224
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95%CI) p-value
Child’s gender
 Male 140(62.5) 1.00 1.00   
 Female 84(37.5) 1.67(0.93–2.98) 0.085 2.54(1.13–5.73) 0.024
CP classification
 Spastic bilateral 117(52.2) 1.00   1.00  
 Spastic unilateral 24(10.7) 0.28(0.12–0.71) 0.007 0.80(0.25–2.53) 0.701
 Dyskinetic CP 55(24.6) 0.27(0.14–0.55) 0.001 0.64(0.27–1.56) 0.328
 Ataxic CP 7(3.1) 0.38(0.08–1.81) 0.225 1.45(0.15–13.71) 0.747
 Non-classifiable 21(9.4) 0.26(0.10–0.68) 0.006 0.75(0.18–3.02) 0.681
Classification
GMFCS
 Level I, II, & III 41(18.3) 1.00   1.00  
 Level IV & V 183(81.7) 11.94(5.14–27.7) < 0.001 3.75(1.38–10.20) 0.009
MACS
 Level I, II, & III 73(32.6) 1.00   1.00  
 Level IV & V 151(67.4) 10.9(5.7–20.9) < 0.001 2.54(0.99–6.5) 0.052
CFCS      
 Level I, II, & III 78(34.8) 1.00   1.00  
 Level IV & V 146(65.2) 10.4(5.5–19.7) < 0.001 2.46(1.03–5.90) 0.044
EADACS
 Level I, II, & III 113(50.5) 1.00   1.00  
 Level IV& V 111(49.5) 9.73(4.96–19.09) < 0.001 3.32(1.37–8.04) 0.008
Comorbidities
 No 60(26.8) 1.00    
 Yes 164(73.2) 0.96(0.52–1.78) 0.893   
Main caregiver’s age
 < 30 104(46.4) 1.00   1.00  
 ≥ 30 120(53.6) 0.62(0.35–1.07) 0.087 0.45(0.21–0.95) 0.035