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Table 2 Perinatal characteristics and short-term morbidities of infants classified by treatment

From: Retrospective comparison of death or neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight preterm infants following different management options of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus

  Conservative
n = 17
Main group analysis Subgroup analysis
Medical and/or surgical
n = 107
Surgical
n = 24
n (%)/mean ± SD n (%)/mean ± SD P value n (%)/mean ± SD P value
Perinatal Characteristics
Gender
 Male 8 (47.1) 61 (57.0) 0.44 12 (50.0) 0.85
Mode of Delivery
 LSCS 8 (47.1) 51 (47.7) 0.96 8 (33.3) 0.38
 GA (weeks) 26.5 ± 1.2 26.2 ± 1.3 0.28 25.5 ± 1.0 0.004
 BW (g) 914.4 ± 160.5 885.6 ± 195.3 0.57 781.8 ± 136.5 0.007
 Z-score BW 0.05 ± 0.7 −0.01 ± 0.8 0.77 −0.1 ± 0.8 0.40
 Z-score birth length 0.04 ± 1.0 − 0.3 ± 1.1 0.19 −0.4 ± 1.1 0.21
 Z-score birth head circumference 0.4 ± 0.8 0.08 ± 1.0 0.24 −0.1 ± 0.8 0.07
 APGAR (5 min) < 7 2 (13.3) 12 (11.7) 0.85 3 (12.5) 0.97
 CRIB II > 12 1 (6.3) 32 (29.9) 0.046 11 (45.8) 0.007
Perinatal Outcomes
 Severe RDS Grade 2–4 8 (47.1) 77 (72.0) 0.04 16 (66.7) 0.21
 Surfactant Therapy > 2 doses 2 (11.8) 14 (13.1) 0.88 5 (20.8) 0.43
 Sepsis 7 (41.2) 31 (29.0) 0.31 9 (37.5) 0.35
 Severe IVH Grade 3–4 0 (0.0) 9 (8.4) 0.21 9 (37.5) 0.06
 PVL 0 (0.0) 4 (3.7) 0.42 0 (0.0) 0.36
 NEC or NEC with complication/surgery 0 (0.0) 8 (7.5) 0.24 2 (8.3) 0.50
 Threshold ROP Stage 3–4 3 (17.6) 21 (21.6) 0.71 9 (37.5) 0.08
 CLDa 2 (11.8) 51 (47.7) 0.005 18 (75.0) 0.000
Complications of treatment
 Pulmonary haemorrhage 1 (6.3) 19 (17.8) 0.25 5 (20.8) 0.21
 Oliguria (< 1 ml/kg/h) 0 (0.0) 5 (4.7) 0.38 3 (12.5) 0.14
 Acute kidney injury 0 (0.0) 4 (3.7) 0.43 2 (8.3) 0.24
 No. of courses of medical therapy 0.0 ± 0.0 1.4 ± 0.5 0.45 2.0 ± 0.5 0.06
 Highest creatinine 48.3 ± 11.8 81.1 ± 24.1 0.000 85.7 ± 32.6 0.004
 Intestinal perforation 0 (0.0) 5 (4.7) 0.36 1 (4.2) 0.39
 Vocal cord paralysis 0 (0.0) 6 (5.6) 0.32 6 (25.0) 0.026
 Aspiration pneumonia 0 (0.0) 1 (0.9) 0.69 1 (4.2) 0.39
Discharge Parameters of Survivors
 Length of Stay of survivors (days) 87.1 ± 29.3 100.0 ± 38.5 0.19 126.7 ± 39.2 0.001
 Discharge GA (weeks) 38.9 ± 3.7 40.5 ± 4.9 0.20 43.6 ± 5.6 0.004
 Weight at Discharge z-score −2.4 ± 1.0 −2.8 ± 1.2 0.17 −3.4 ± 1.0 0.003
 Length at Discharge z-score −2.7 ± 1.1 −3.8 ± 1.4 0.017 −4.3 ± 1.1 0.001
 Head circumference at Discharge z-score −1.4 ± 0.8 −2.1 ± 1.0 0.039 −2.4 ± 1.2 0.026
  1. aWe assumed the worst case scenario that infants who died prior to 36 weeks developed CLD