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Table 1 Demographic data

From: Hypovitaminosis D and risk factors in pediatric epilepsy children

Risk factor Total subjects
n = 138
Vitamin D
sufficiency
25(OH)D
>  30 ng/ml
n = 40
Hypovitaminosis D
25(OH)D
≤ 30 ng/ml
n = 98
P-value
Age
  (years) 9.65 ± 5.09 6.8 ± 5 10.21 ± 4.69 < 0.001*
Serum 25(OH) D level
  (ng/mL) 26.56 ± 9.67 38.3 ± 8.18 21.77 ± 5.03 < 0.001*
Gender
  male 74(53.6%) 26(35.1%) 48(64.9%) 0.087
  female 64(46.4%) 14(21.9%) 50(78.1%)  
BMI (Body mass index)
  (kg/m2) 17.69 ± 4.82 16.94 ± 4.59 18.01 ± 4.91 0.239
Type of seizure
  focal 131(94.9%) 39(29.8%) 92(70.2%) 0.379
  generalize 7(5.1%) 1(14.3%) 6(85.7%)  
Cause of epilepsy
  remote symptomatic cause 52(37.7%) 14(26.9%) 38(73.1%) 0.888
  genetic cause 12(8.7%) 4(33.3%) 8(66.7%)  
  idiopathic cause 74(53.6%) 22(29.7%) 52(70.3%)  
Puberty status
  prepuberty 81(58.7%) 33(40.7%) 48(59.3%) <  0.001
  puberty 57(41.3%) 7(12.3%) 50(87.7%)  
Physical status
  normal daily activities 102(73.9%) 27(26.5%) 75(73.5%) 0.273
  limited daily activities 36(26.1%) 13(36.1%) 23(63.9%)  
Gross motor development
  normal 69(50%) 16(23.2%) 53(76.8%) 0.133
  delay 69(50%) 24(34.8%) 45(65.2%)  
Fine motor development
  normal 67(48.6%) 15(22.4%) 52(77.6%) 0.097
  delay 71(51.4%) 25(35.2%) 46(64.8%)  
Language development
  normal 61(44.2%) 14(23%) 47(77%) 0.164
  delay 77(55.8%) 26(33.8%) 51(66.2%)  
Personal-social development
  normal 60(43.5%) 14(23.3%) 46(76.7%) 0.199
  delay 78(56.5%) 26(33.3%) 52(66.7%)  
Duration of sun exposed, during 10 am-14 pm
  <  60 min/day 129(93.5%) 35(27.1%) 94(72.9%) 0.121
  ≥ 60 min/day 9(6.5%) 5(55.6%) 4(44.4%)  
  1. *p-value significant at < 0.05