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Table 4 Primary and secondary outcomes of infants treated with variable enemas, lipid enemas and no enemas

From: Lipid enemas for meconium evacuation in preterm infants – a retrospective cohort study

  (I) Variable enemas (n = 201) (II) Lipid enemas
(n = 141)
(III) No enemas
(n = 57)
P-values
Focal intestinal perforation
 FIP rate 24/201 (11.9%) 9/141 (6.4%) 0/57(0.0%) I vs. II 0.09
I vs. III < 0.01
II vs. III 0.06
 Diagnosis of FIP (DOL) 6 (2–20) 12 (5–21) I vs. II 0.23
I vs. III -
II vs. III -
Location of FIP
- Terminal ileum 19/24 (79.2%) 5/9 (55.6%) I vs. II 0.04
- Colon 3/24 (12.5%) 4/9 (44.4%) I vs. III 0.39
- Not specified or no surgical treatment 2/24 (8.3%) 0  
Necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis
 NEC rate 6/201 (3.0%) 11/141 (7.8%) 2/57 (3.5%) I vs. II 0.04
I vs. III 0.84
II vs. III 0.35
 Diagnosis of NEC (DOL) 12.5 (6–46) 7 (3–44) 7 (4–10) I vs. II 0.59
I vs. III 0.29
II vs. III 0.51
 Diagnosis of ≥1 sepsis 37/201 (18.4%) 19/141 (13.5%) 8/57 (14.0%) I vs. II 0.23
I vs. III 0.44
II vs. III 0.92
Stooling pattern and sum of enemas
 First meconium (DOL) 1 (1–2) 2 (1–5) 1 (1–3) I vs. II < 0.01
I vs. III 0.24
II vs. III < 0.01
 First transitional stool (DOL) 5 (2–14) 5 (3–16) 5 (2–9) I vs. II 0.04
I vs. III 0.06
II vs. III < 0.01
 First normal stool (DOL) 7 (4–20) 7 (5–20) 6.5 (5–16) I vs. II < 0.01
I vs. III 0.97
II vs. III < 0.01
 Sum of stools until first normal stool 20 (9–59) 19 (6–57) 20 (9–38) I vs. II 0.19
I vs. III 0.64
II vs. III 0.62
 Sum of enemas until first normal stool 10 (2–41) 3 (1–22) 0 I vs. II < 0.01
I vs. III < 0.01
II vs. III < 0.01
Enteral and parenteral nutrition
 Days from birth to full enteral feeds 7 (5–110) 7 (5–47) 6 (4–98) I vs. II 0.05
I vs. III < 0.01
II vs. III < 0.01
 Enteral intake on the 14th day of life (ml) 154 (0–186) 154 (0–186) 157 (100–175) I vs. II 0.66
I vs. III 0.34
II vs. III 0.53
 Days from birth with IV line for PN 7 (5–109) 7 (5–79) 6 (5–98) I vs. II 0.13
I vs. III < 0.01
II vs. III < 0.01
 N Infants with central IV lines 97/201 (48.3%) 79/141 (56.0%) 18/57 (31.6%) I vs. II 0.16
I vs. III 0.03
II vs. III < 0.01
 Total days with central IV lines 8 (1–109) 8 (1–163) 6.5 (1–32) I vs. II 0.27
I vs. III 0.01
II vs. III < 0.01
  1. Data presented as mean (± standard deviation); median (minimum and maximum), or as the number of patients with percentages in parenthesis. DOL Day of life, FIP Focal intestinal perforation, NEC Necrotizing enterocolitis, IV Intravenous, PN Parenteral nutrition