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Table 3 i-variable and multi-variable mixed-effects logistic regression analysis for determinants of anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in Ethiopia from January 18 to June 27 in 2016 (N = 7794)

From: Spatial variation and determinants of childhood anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in Ethiopia: further analysis of Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2016

Variables Anemic status COR (95%) AOR (95%CI)
Non-anemic Anemic  
Residency
 urban 608 719 1 1
 rural 2496 3971 1.47 (1.20–1.80) 0.89 (0.68–1.17)
Age of child in months  
 6–11 200 714 1 1
 12–23 497 1268 0.71 (0.57–0.86) 0.68 (0.55–0.85)*
 24–35 646 1056 0.40 (0.33–0.49) 0.38 (0.31–0.47)*
 36–47 770 886 0.26 (0.21–0.32) 0.25 (0.20–0.31)*
 48–59 991 766 0.17 (0.14–0.21) 0.16 (0.13–1.20)
Maternal educational level
 No education 1903 3181 1 1
 primary 840 1141 0.90 (0.79–1.02) 0.95 (0.82–1.11)
 secondary 233 253 0.75 (0.60–0.93) 0.83 (0.63–1.10)
 higher 128 115 0.60 (0.44–0.82) 0.76 (0.51–1.12)
Religion of mother
 orthodox 1243 1107 1 1
 Protestant 641 776 1.24 (1.02–1.49) 1.213 (0.99–1.48)
 Muslim 1145 2692 2.48 (2.11–2.91) 2.07 (1.75–2.46)**
 others 75 115 1.71 (1.17–2.49) 1.49 (1.01–2.22)*
Wealth index
 poorest 849 2005 1 1
 poorer 568 819 0.69 (0.59–0.81) 0.74 (0.63–0.88)*
 middle 543 613 0.56 (0.47–0.67) 0.60 (0.50–0.72)*
 richer 465 518 0.56 (0.47–0.68) 0.65 (0.53–0.79)*
 richest 679 735 0.46 (0.38–0.55) 0.57 (0.44–0.74)*
Husband’s educational level
 No education 1317 2305 1 1
 primary 1034 1420 0.89 (0.78–1.00) 1.01 (0.88–1.16)
 secondary 304 404 0.86 (0.71–1.05) 1.02 (0.81–1.27)
 higher 220 294 0.84 (0.67–1.06) 1.26 (0.95–1.68)
Mother’s current working status
 Not working 1317 3501 1 1
 Working 1022 1187 0.76 (0.68–0.86) 0.87 (0.76–0.99)*
Maternal anemic status
 Non-anemic 2291 2708 1 1
 Anemic 813 1982 1.60 (1.43–1.80) 1.53 (1.35–1.73)*
Size of a child at birth
 Average 1372 1943 1 1
 Above average 997 1375 0.95 (0.84–1.07) 0.97 (0.85–1.10)
 Below average 700 1338 1.21 (1.07–1.38) 1.11 (0.96–1.27)
Number of under-five children
 1–2 children 2622 3655 1 1
  ≥ 3 children 482 1035 1.27 (1.10–1.46) 1.19 (1.03–1.38)*
Maternal age in years
 15–24 620 1137 1 1
 25–29 912 1443 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 1.05 (0.89–1.23)
 30–34 714 1064 0.83 (0.71–0.96) 1.06 (0.89–1.26)
 35–48 858 1064 0.71 (0.61–0.82) 0.95 (0.80–1.13)
Had diarrhea in the last two weeks
 No 2762 4079 1 1
 Yes 339 604 1.35 (1.15–1.58) 0.90 (0.75–1.07)
Had fever in the last two weeks
 No 2718 3924 1 1
 Yes 382 765 1.54 (1.33–1.79) 1.36 (1.13–1.65)*
Had to cough in the last two weeks
 No 2615 3853 1 1
 Yes 489 836 1.29 (1.12–1.48) 1.02 (0.86–1.21)
Taking of Vitamin A in the last 6 months
 No 1445 2482 1 1
 Yes 1606 2134 0.86 (0.77–0.95) 0.92 (0.82–1.04)
Taking iron pills, sprinkles or syrup
 No 2786 4288 1 1
 Yes 280 350 0.86 (0.71–1.03) 0.99 (0.81–1.22)
Drugs for intestinal parasites in the last 6 months
 No 2560 4072 1 1
 yes 483 557 0.81 (0.69–0.94) 1.12 (0.95–1.33)
Stunting status
 No stunting 2101 2839 1 1
 Moderate stunting 588 949 1.24 (1.09–1.41) 1.31 (1.13–1.50)*
 Severe stunting 347 751 1.61 (1.38–1.89) 1.82 (1.54–2.16)*
wasting status
 No wasting 2793 3980 1 1
 Moderate wasting 237 523 1.37 (1.14–1.64) 1.09 (0.89–1.32)
 Severe wasting 32 95 1.93 (1.24–3.00) 1.44 (0.91–2.28)
Random component
 Community variance    1.24 (0.089)
 Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)     0.12(0.08,0.21)
  1. *p-value < 0.05 statistically significant