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Table 4 Multi-level model results for the relationship between height-for-age Z-score and NGI in Nepalese children

From: Effective nutrition governance is correlated with better nutrition outcomes in Nepal

Variable

HAZ

WHZ

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 4

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 4

Child-level estimates

 Intercept

-1.49***

-1.70***

-1.64***

-1.68***

-0.75***

-1.92***

-1.86***

-1.96***

 Child’s age

   > 24 months

 

-1.51***

-1.52***

-1.51***

 

0.14***

0.14***

0.14***

   ≤ 24 months

 

Ref

Ref

Ref

 

Ref

Ref

Ref

 Female child

 

-0.02

-0.02

-0.02

 

0.03

0.03

0.03

 CDDSa

 

-0.14***

-0.14***

-0.14***

 

-0.02***

-0.02***

-0.02***

 No feverb

 

0.04**

0.05**

0.05**

 

0.13***

0.14***

0.14***

 Month of birth

 

-0.01**

-0.01**

-0.01**

 

-0.00

-0.00

-0.00

 Mother’s education

 

0.04***

0.04***

0.04***

 

0.01***

0.01***

0.01***

 Mother’s BMI

 

0.04***

0.04***

0.04***

 

0.06***

0.06***

0.06***

 Mother’s age

 

0.01***

0.01***

0.01***

 

-0.00*

-0.00*

-0.00*

Community-level estimates

 NGI (Z-score)

  

-0.02

-0.09

  

-0.05

-0.07

 NGI (Z-score) & child’s age

  NGI & > 24 months

   

0.12***

   

0.04*

  NGI & ≤ 24 months

   

Ref

   

Ref

 Panel 2

  

-0.07**

-0.07***

  

-0.07***

-0.07***

 Panel 4

  

Ref

Ref

  

Ref

Ref

Covariance parameters

 Intercept

0.116***

0.094***

0.094**

0.094**

0.199***

0.117**

0.115**

0.115**

 Residual

1.555***

1.367***

1.365***

1.362***

0.950***

0.902***

0.901***

0.901***

 ICC

0.07

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.17

0.11

0.11

0.11

Model fit statistics

AIC

42,546.8

37,608.4

37,601.8

37,574.4

30,878.9

27,854.5

27,843.0

27,841.4

N

12,950

11,910

11,910

11,910

11,046

10,148

10,148

10,148

  1. *p < 0.10; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001
  2. aChild’s diet diversity score; bChild had no fever in the past 30 days; Estimates are beta coefficients; Values based on SAS PROC MIXED; Estimation method is Maximum Likelihood