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Table 6 Comparison of Sleep-related Factors in Articles from Asian and Western Cultures (N = 218)

From: Cultural variation in factors associated with sudden infant death during sleep

Sleep-related factors Observation Contents Asian cultures (n = 38) Western cultures (n = 180) χ2 (p)
Sleep position 96 (44.0) Lateral, prone, supine position for routine or at the scene, or history of position change 14 (36.8) 82 (46.6) 0.967 (.371)
Bed-sharing 48 (22.0) Sharing bed, mattress, pad, sleep surface, etc. 5 (13.2) 43 (23.9) 2.104 (.196)
Rooming-in 36 (16.5) Sleeping in the same room or space 4 (10.5) 32 (17.8) 1.197 (.342)
Place of death 30 (13.8) Car seat, couch, ondol, sofa, swing 3 (7.9) 27 (15.0) 1.335 (.309)
Head covering 27 (12.4) Unfixed sheet over face, sleeping bag or heavy duvet to cover face, feet to foot for preventive effect, etc. 4 (10.5) 23 (12.8) 0.147 (1.000)
Overheating 26 (11.9) Temperature at the time of the incident; wearing a hat, the tog of a sheet or cloth, extra heating device, room temperature, extra sheet 1 (2.6) 25 (13.9) 3.785 (.055)
Soft objects near bedding 26 (11.9) Pillow, toy 3 (7.9) 23 (12.8) 0.712 (.583)
Soft or non-breathing surface 23 (10.8) Mattress, soft bedding, sheepskin, waterproof mattress or sheet 3 (7.9) 20 (11.1) 0.344 (.773)
Swaddling 6 (2.8) Wrapping to restrict arm movements using sheets, cloth or goods 0 (0.0) 6 (3.3) 1.303 (.593)
Bedding standards 2 (0.9) Accreditation or regulation on bed safety of cribs, mattresses, frames, etc. 0 (0.0) 2 (1.1) 0.426 (1.000)
Total 320 (147%)   37 (17.0) 283 (129.8)  
  1. * Fisher’s exact test