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Table 2 Categorization of SUDI Factors by the Triple Risk Model (N = 218)

From: Cultural variation in factors associated with sudden infant death during sleep

Triple Risk Model (TRM) Scopes Factors
TRM 1: Vulnerability of the infant (39) Abnormality, dysfunctionality (6) Brainstem problems (28); arousal during sleep (23); congenital malformation (9); autoresuscitation (4); crying/colic problem (3); milk allergy (3)
Birth problems (4) Birth type (5); presentation at birth (1); PROM (1); time at birth (1)
Genetic factors (3) Genetics (21); previous still-birth/interruption/infant death (3); family history of SIDS (2)
General factors (11) Male sex (67); short gestation (53); ethnicity (race) (39); postnatal complication (NICU admission, assisted ventilation, any neonatal problem) (16); Apgar score (6); fetal growth retardation (5); growth (growth index, weight on death) (3); feeding problem (2); history of resuscitation (2); birth interval (2); undernutrition (1)
Prenatal environment (15) Prenatal smoking (65); prenatal care (14); multiple gestation (13); prenatal alcohol (11); GDM/PIH (6); prenatal illicit drug use (6); maternal infection (5); parental psychiatric illness (4); fetal hypoxia (3); smoking before pregnancy (2); maternal BMI (1); chronic maternal disease (1); hb, hct during pregnancy (1); unplanned pregnancy (1); weight gain during pregnancy (1)
TRM 2: Exogenous stressors (44) Ecological factors (3) Outside temperature (season, ambient/cold temperature) (32); weekday (4); air pollution (1)
Circumstantial factors: feeding, ; sleeping; surroundings (22) Sleep position (96); bed-sharing (48); environmental smoking (46); type of feeding (37); rooming-in (36); event place (car seat, sofa, couch, ondol, swing, etc) (30); head covering (feet-to-foot, sleeping bag, tight beddings, duvet) (27); overheating (wearing a hat, tog, the thermal overall grade of a covering/dress, extra warming, room temperature, warm type bedding, more blanket at night) (26); soft object near bedding (pillow, toy) (26); soft surface (mattress, soft bedding, sheepskin, waterproof bedding) (23); pacifier (22); parental alcohol use after birth (17); parental illicit drug use after birth (11); face position (9); event location (home, daycare, hotel, etc.) (8); sweating (7); swaddling (6); last feeding (5); beddings standards (2); moving (1); plastic covered mattress (1); paternal alcohol use (1)
Clinical factors (13) Infection (24); apnea episodes (16); vaccination (11); poor conditions (illness, intake reduction, sleeping more) (10); clinic visit (6); ALTE history (5); GER (4); antibiotics (3); age at weaning (2); complex chronic condition (2); drowsy when awake (2); eczema (1); fever (1)
Socioeconomic status (6) Parental age (43); parental education (31); gravidity/parity (31); marital status (28); economy (medical insurance, car owned, mortgage, overcrowding, poverty, underserved region, social welfare) (25); employment/job (17)
TRM 3: Critical period Critical period (1) Critical period (69)
  1. SUDI=Sudden unexpected death in infancy; PROM=Prelabor rupture of membranes; SIDS=Sudden infant death syndrome; NICU=Neonatal intensive care unit; GDM=Gestational diabetes mellitus; PIH=Pregnancy induced hypertension; BMI=Body mass index; ALTE=Apparent life-threatening event in infancy; GER=Gastroesophageal reflux.