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Table 3 Obstetric and neonatal factors associated with Birth Asphyxia (n = 54,492)

From: A multicenter study of incidence, risk factors and outcomes of babies with birth asphyxia in Nepal

Variables BA (n = 341)
N (%)
others (n = 54,151)
N (%)
cOR (95% CI) aOR (95% C.I.) a
Induction of labour
 No induction (spontaneous) 260 (76.2) 37,852 (69.9) Reference Reference
 Induction with prostaglandins 48 (14.1) 9574 (17.7) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.7 (0.5–1.0)
 Induction with artificial rupture of membrane 14 (4.1) 1387 (2.6) 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 1.5 (0.9–2.6)
 Induction with oxytocin 19 (5.6) 5338 (9.9) 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.5 (0.3–0.9)
Mode of Delivery
 Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery 201 (58.9) 40,656 (75.1) Reference Reference
 Instrumental Delivery 45 (13.2) 1902 (3.5) 4.8 (3.5–6.6) 4.4 (3.1–6.1)
 Caesarian Section 95 (27.9) 11,593 (21.4) 1.7 (1.3–2.1) 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Complication during labour and delivery
 Multiple Delivery 2 (0.6) 201 (0.4) 1.6 (0.4–6.4) 1.2 (0.3–4.8)
 Suspected maternal infection 80 (23.5) 9129 (16.9) 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.4 (0.9–1.9)
 Fetal distress in labour 10 (2.9) 771 (1.4) 2.1 (1.1–3.9) 1.9 (1.0–3.6)
 Prolonged labour 7 (2.1) 493 (0.9) 2.3 (1.1–4.8) 2.0 (0.9–4.3)
 Malpresentation /malposition 18 (5.3) 1440 (2.7) 2.0 (1.3–3.3) 1.8 (1.0–3.0)
 Prolapsed cord 1 (0.3) 17 (0.0) 9.4 (1.2–70.6) 3.4 (0.4–30.8)
 Meconium aspiration 18 (5.3) 91 (0.2) 33.1 (19.7–55.5) 23.7 (13.8–40.9)
Birth weight (grams)
 2500–4000 301 (88.3) 50,398 (93.1) Reference Reference
  < 2500 27 (7.9) 2452 (4.5) 1.8 (1.2–2.7) 2.0 (1.3–2.9)
  > 4000 13 (3.8) 1301 (2.4) 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 1.3 (0.8–2.4)
Gestational age (weeks)
 37–41 weeks 321 (94.1) 52,712 (97.3) Reference Reference
  ≥ 42 weeks 20 (5.9) 1439 (2.7) 2.3 (1.5–3.6) 2.0 (1.3–3.3)
Sex of the baby
 Female 118 (34.6) 24,735 (45.7) Reference Reference
 Male 223 (65.4) 29,416 (54.3) 1.6 (1.3–2.0) 1.6 (1.2–2.0)
  1. aadjusted for all the variables